Cognition and Intelligence PLA Outline - Psychology 202...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 15 pages.

Psychology 202 – Henriques PLA Study Session On Lectures 12, 13, 14 Topics: Memory (part 2) and Thinking, Language and Intelligence ****Please remember peers when filling out the outline before session to put ideas in your own words to help you understand the material Distortions of Memory: o Bias : existing feelings and knowledge distort memory o Misattribution, e.g., source monitoring: (forget where and when one learns memory) (George Bush misremembering where he learned of 9/11 attacks) o Suggestibility: suggesting to someone that something was present at the time of a memory recollection (wording suggests different things) (ex. the difference between slammed and bumped) o Absentmindedness Elizabeth Loftus : false memory syndrome (showed the video of the mugging and immediately after the video showed a video of the suspects and 90% of people identified the wrong person) Loftus (1993) : Asked about real and fictitious events 58% of children provided false accounts when asked by another interviewer Psychologists who viewed videos could not accurately identify real or false memories Can never forget a memory but you can sometimes not recover the memory
Amnesia : loss of memory o Anterograde amnesia - a disorder that prevents the retention of new information o Retrograde amnesia - the loss of memories of past events Distortions of memory eyewitness testimony: one’s account of an event Cross-Race Identification Weapon Presence (in presence of a weapon; one is focused on that and not the person holding it) Not reliable (suggestibility factor) Neurobiological Basis of Memory o Brain Structures: Hippocampus : explicit memory consolidation The Hippocampus is involved in what? Childhood amnesia and alcohol induced blackouts which interferes with consolidation Frontal Cortex: associating fact to context (personal experiences); if there is damage you can remember the events, but not how it is connected to you Basal ganglia: procedural memories (how to do certain tasks); if there is a lesion in the ganglia, people can’t remember how to do certain tasks Cerebellum: classical conditioning
Neurochemicals: acetylcholine : long-term potentiation “use it or lose it” (causes Alzheimer’s if there is a degregation of it) Cognition: refers to the mental processes -- perception, memory, thought, and language - -that together produce knowledge. Language: basics: o Phonemes: (smallest unit of sound) 40-45 different phonemes in English language o Phonological rules: how the sounds are combined to form morphemes o Morphemes: words that carry meaning; smallest unit of language that convey meaning o Morphological Rules: how we combine morphemes into sentences (see syntactical rules) o Syntactical Rules: how words get combined to create sentences and phrase Meaning: o Semantics (how words are used) o Deep Structure (meaning of sentence or phrase) vs Surface Structure (what the phrase or sentence looks like on the surface; how the words are organized) o

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture