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Psychology Test 2 Notes

Psychology Test 2 Notes - Psychology 2000 Test 2 notes...

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Psychology 2000 Test 2 notes 9-28-05 Chapter 5- States of Consciousness Definitions- - Consciousness - our awareness of various cognitive processes such as dreaming sleeping, concentrating, and making decisions. - Waking consciousness - includes all the thoughts, dealings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonably alert. - Altered states of consciousness - a mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness. Explaining Waking Consciousness: - First, consciousness was psychology’s primary consciousness. - Consciousness fell out of favor in the early 20 th century. Focus on directly observable, measurable behavior. - Change in focus in the 1960s- alternative states of consciousness, rise in cognitive psychology, advances in neuroscience, dissatisfaction with behaviorism. Consciousness and Non-consciousness - Common view- consciousness is only a small peak emerging from a mass of unconscious mental activity. - Freud- sexual and aggressive instincts that remain largely hidden. - Non-conscious – sensations and perceptions, thoughts and feelings, and memories, and goals to which we are not paying attention at the moment, as well as automatic actions and reactions to which we rarely give much thought. Cognitive Psychologists - See consciousness as the subjective or first-person element of information processing- the sense of self. - Together, the different brain centers provide the self with an overall orientation. - When something new, unusual, or unexpected occurs, one or more of the brain divisions enter consciousness. Consciousness and Adaptation - Many of today’s psychologists view consciousness as highly adaptive. 1
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- For example, Pinker, holds that consciousness is a necessary element of human sociability. - Our survival depends on how well we get along with the group. Daydreaming and Fantasy- - James Thurber’s “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” (Man overtaken by his imagination and daydreams) - Daydreams apparently effortless shifts in attention away from the “Here and Now” into a private world of make-believe. - Urge to daydream comes in waves about every 90 min. with peak intensity between 12 and 2 P.M. - Average person spends almost ½ their waking hours fantasizing. - Most daydreams are variations on a central theme-0 unfulfilled wishes and goals. o Four Categories of Day Dreams Positive daydreams- happy daydreamers imagine pleasant, playful, entertaining scenarios. Negative daydreams- people who are extremely achievement oriented tend to experience reoccurring themes of frustration, guilt, fear of failure, and hostility. Scattered - people who score high on measures of anxiety often have fleeting, loosely connected, worrisome day dreams, which give them little pleasure. Purposeful
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Psychology Test 2 Notes - Psychology 2000 Test 2 notes...

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