PSYC Chapter 11 Notes

PSYC Chapter 11 Notes - Ch 11 Motivation- factors that...

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Ch 11 Motivation - factors that activate, direct, maintain behavior toward a goal Emotion - subjective feeling that includes arousal, cognitions, and expressions Theories of Motivation 1. Instincts - specific, inborn behavior patterns characteristic of an entire species. a. Reasons this theory fell out of favor i. Most important behavior is learned. ii. Human behavior is rarely rigid, inflexible, unchanging, and found throughout the entire species. iii. Linking every conceivable human behavior to a corresponding instinct explains nothing. 2. Drive reduction theory - behavior aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension/ arousal and returning organism to homeostasis (balance) a. Drive - state of tension or arousal that motivates behavior. b. Primary drives - unlearned, found in all animals; motivate behavior vital to survival of individual/ species c. Secondary drives - learned drives not based on a physiological state d. Drive reduction theory implies that, if able, people would spend as much time as possible at rest. 3. Arousal theory - each individual has an optimum level of arousal; varies from one situation to next and over course of the day a. Arousal refers to a state of alertness b. Whether arousal theory can account for certain forms of stimulation is unclear c. Zuckerman- sensation seeking- is a basic motivation that varies greatly from person to person 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a. Thought of needs and motivation as a pyramid; higher needs only come into focus once all lower needs are mainly or entirely satisfied. b.
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PSYC Chapter 11 Notes - Ch 11 Motivation- factors that...

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