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Unformatted text preview: 23:16 Life Span Development I 10-22-07 Major Issues in Developmental Psychology Development psychology Age- related changes in behavior/ mental processes from conception to death 1. Nature and Nurture Nature approach AKA maturational approach- development proceeds in an orderly fashion, is result of genetics Nurture approach AKA experience approach- emphasized importance of environment for development Middle ground relative contribution of each 2. Continuity and Discontinuity Continuity view development is a gradual, additive process without sudden change (babies learn to sit, then crawl, then stand, then walk) Discontinuity view development is discontinuous qualitative transformations 3. Stability and change AKA early and Later Experience Early experience view experiences of infancy especially important for later development Later experience view early experiences are important to development, but no more important than later experiences Interactionist perspective aspects on both sides effect development Research Methods 1. Cross-sectional research studying people all at one time 2. Longitudinal research studying same group of people for a period of time Problems Cross sectional studies cohort effects- differences that result from specific histories of age group studied Longitudinal studies are expensive, both in time and money Attrition loss of research participants over time: Prenatal Development 1. Germinal period 1 st 2 weeks after conception. Creation of zygote (fertilized egg), cell division, and attachment of zygote to uterine wall 2. Embryonic period 2-8 weeks after conception. Rate of cell divisions increases, support systems for cells form, and organs appear. Mass of cells attached to uterine wall forms layers and is now called embryo Endoderm digestive and respiratory systems Ectoderm nervous system and sensory receptors Mesoderm bones, muscles, excretory, reproductive and circulatory systems 3. Fetal Period 2-9 months after conception. Fetus is rapidly gaining weight; fine detailing of body organs and systems Teratogens Teratogen an agent that produces a malformation or raises population incidence of malformation Severity of damage dependent on 3 factors 1. Dose response more dose, more damage 2. Time of exposure certain stages of development are more vulnerable than others. 1 st trimester more vulnerable than 2 nd and 3 rd 3. Genetics susceptibility genotype of pregnant woman and genotype of fetus If you have a high metabolism, then the alcohol will not stay in your body (less damaging). Low metabolism then stay in body longer (more damage) A. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) a group of abnormalities in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy Most common non-genetic (non-inherited) cause of mental retardation in US (3-9/1000 children with this) Alcohol is broken down more slowly in immature body of fetus...
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