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Unformatted text preview: Upset Stomach: Reflux : relaxation of lower and possibly upper sphincters and aspiration risk (acid inhibitors given during anesthesia); risk is particularly high in ruminants on 2 agonists (early giraffe immobilizations!) Regurgitation-if voluntary opening of esophageal sphincters occurs, as during chewing cud in ruminants All others below: reverse SI/stomach peristalsis actively push upwards via medulla Retching-if upper esophageal sphincter does not open b/c of the upward force (common in dogs) Vomiting occurs if the upward force over-powers the upper sphincter- truly projectile vomiting Clinical Esophageal Conditions: Achalasia-when lower esophageal sphincter doesnt relax & food builds in esophagus during peristalsis Heartburn-gastric reflux due to an abnormally relaxed lower esophageal sphincter (GERD): the esophagus is ill-prepared to deal with stomach acids much above the level of the stomach Stomach parts: 1. 3 smooth muscle layers-Longitudinal, Circular & Oblique Vs. most of tubular GI has 2 definitive muscle layers (although,a less organized muscularis mucosae layer is present in carnivores and some others in the SI) 2. 3 anatomical divisions: fundus, body, antrum/pyloric (pyloric-regional cell types) 3. 2 Functional stomach regions: Orad (toward mouth) region-fundus and proximal body: Glands with secretory cells-HCl/pesinogen etc. Body is responsible for receiving food Caudad (toward rectum) region-antrum and distal body. Glands produce mucous and Gastrin. Glands produce mucous and Gastrin....
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- Spring '08