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Unformatted text preview: Philosophy Final Exam Study Guide 1. Define or otherwise explain the following terms: argument, valid, sound, modus ponens, modus tollens. Be able to recognize whether an argument is valid. Be able to say what form a given valid argument is in. Argument A series of statements intended to establish another statement Valid It is logically impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false Sound It is valid and all of its premises are true Modus Ponens P. -> If P then Q. -> Therefore, Q. Modus Tollens If P then Q. -> Not Q. -> Therefore, not P. 2. Present and explain a sound argument that shows that (ERT) is false. Present The Baby Bush argument against (ERT): 1. If (ERT) is true, then the baby Barbara Bush held in her arms in July, 1946 is not identical to the current president of the United States. 2. The baby Barbara Bush held in her arms in July, 1946 is identical to the current president of the United States. 3. Therefore, (ERT) is false. Explain Exact Resemblance Theory (ERT) Person x at time t1 is identical to person y at time t2 if and only if x, as he is at t1, exactly resembles y, as he is at t2 (and x and y are both persons) 1. If (ERT) is true then a person is not the identical to himself as he ages. 2. A person is identical to himself as he ages. 3. Define (OT). Be sure to say what features immaterial souls are supposed to have. Explain how someone who believes (OT) will defend the claim that it is possible for a person to survive her death. Soul Theory (OT) Person x at time t1 is identical to person y at time t2 if and only if x at t1 and y at t2 have the same soul....
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course PHIL 101 taught by Professor Lebowitz during the Fall '07 term at UMass (Amherst).
- Fall '07