STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM (1) - STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAMINTEGUMENTARY STUFFEpidermis is the person’s first line of defense against an invader.Skin also serves as a regulator for body temperature, providesnerve endings for sensory perception and produces vitamin Dfrom precursor found in the skin.Dermis is supplied with blood and contains the connectivetissues, hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands. The dermiscontains the connective tissue that separates the epidermis fromthe subcutaneous fat layer.Subcutaneous Layer generates heat and serves as insulation. Itoperates as shock absorption in traumas and stores excesscalories for future use.Sweat glands are either apocrine or eccrine type. Eccrine glandsare the widely distributed glands that control body temperature.Apocrine glands are found in the axillary area and genital area.The decomposition of the sweat from these glands by bacteria isresponsible for an adult’s body odor.Hair follicles are appendages of the skin.Integumentary Developmental ConsiderationsThe skin of infants is smoother in texture. Their skin is alsosusceptible to hypothermia due to their decreased subcutaneoustissue. An infant is covered by lanugo, which is a fine hair atbirth. Eccrine glands do not function until about 1 month old.Apocrine glands do not function until puberty. When conductingan infant patient interview, be sure to ask the parents aboutfeeding history; bottle or breast milk, diaper habits; how manyand what type of diaper used, bath products used, clothingmaterial/washing detergent and temperature of the home.Considerations for children include asking questions about eatinghabits and dietary preferences, exposure to communicablediseases, allergies, pets, trauma, and nail bitingAdolescents experience activation of their apocrine glands asthey go through puberty. They develop an increase in sebumproduction, which leads to oily skin and acne. They will begin
growing hair in the axillary and pubic areas. Boys will begingrowing hair on their face as well.During pregnancy, increasing vascular flow can lead to increaseblood flow to the skin. Pregnancy can also lead to pigmentincreases in areas of the face. The change is in the amount ofmelanin due to increase hormone production. Followingpregnancy, treatment options can be explored to lighten thoseareas if indicated. During pregnancy, important questions to askthe patient include how many weeks of gestation or postpartum,hygiene practices, and any skin problems present prior topregnancy.Older adults experience a decrease in oil production. In additionthe epidermis layer thins which allows for easier injury. Finally,collagen levels decrease resulting in dry, sagging and wrinklingof skin. In older adults, ask questions regarding sensationchanges, chronic itching, delayed healing, falls/trauma andcomorbidities such as diabetes and peripheral vascular disease.Common Skin ConcernsRashesXerosisPruritisChanges in a moleHair lossChanges in nails

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