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Ebio 1220 Exam 1 Notes

Ebio 1220 Exam 1 Notes - Ebio 1220 Exam 1 Notes 7Monday...

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Ebio 1220 Exam 1 Notes 14/01/2008 15:08:00 7Monday, January 14 th Evolution and Systematics I  Chapter 25 (except 25.4)  I. Review of evolution and selection  II. Introduction to phylogenies  8III. Fossils  IV. Classification  Review of Evolution  evolution = change over time in a population’s genetic makeup Modern organisms differ from recent fossil organisms Pathogens change from antibiotic susceptible to antibiotic resistant Species have gone extinct in our lifetimes Evolution- a description of the fact that species and their characteristics change  over time. Natural selection-a theory that provides hypotheses about why and how these  changes have occurred.  EVOLUTION NATURAL SELECTION The Key Ingredients of Natural Selection 1.Individuals within species vary.  2.Some of these variations are heritable.  3.More offspring are produced than can survive.  4.Variations can influence the likelihood of survival  and reproduction.  Natural selection depends on the environment. Will not necessarily increase in  complexity or intelligence. Are changes within an individual’s lifetime subject to evolution? No
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Natural selection acts on individuals and results in changes in populations.  Changes within individuals during their lifetimes Phylogeny=evolutionary history of a group. Essentially this is an evolutionary  tree(phylogenetic tree) It is a hypothesis about the relationships among different groups.  Phylo-tribe or group; geny-origin Why are phylogenies important? Disease transmission-understanding origins and predicting future movement o HIV and avian influenza genetic engineering conservation understanding the origins of life and biodiversity Humans are most related to fungi. Y axis-relative time Junctions-common ancestor X axis-relatedness Constructing phylogenies Systematics:use of many different kinds of characters(=observable, heritable  feature) to understand relationships Fossils Morphology-physical structure(limbs, hairs) Development Behavior Molecular ‘revolution’ o Strength in agreement Fossils: a definition Preserved remanants or impressions left by organisms that lived in the past.
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Fossil record- ordered array in which fossils appear within sedimentary rocks. o Strata: sequential layers of material o Sedimentary rock- different layers form at different times How does sedimentary rock form?
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