bisc midterm review - 3 classes of macronutrients Protein...

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3 classes of macronutrients Protein - Composed of amino acids (20 different kinds of AA) and all living things use the same kind of AA however each organism need a certain proportion of protein that may differ. Lipids - triglycerides (fat) represent 95 % of the lipids that we ingest (others include cholesterol, plant sterol and vitamins) - lipids are almost totally insoluble in water unlike the other macronutrients because they contain little if any oxygen atoms which make them incapable of making hydrogen bonds with water. Carbohydrates - our main energy source - glucose is our body’s primary source of energy, it is a simple sugar that comes from digesting carbohydrates - if we consume more than we need the excess is converted into fat which we store in adipocytes (fatty tissue) - Fat is the only other stored substance and its function is to provide energy when carb source is depleated. - Humans use Glucose in the biosynthesis ( when chemical compounds are produced from simpler reagents) of half of the kinds of amino acids (10) and the ones we cant make (essential amino acids) have to be obtained through plants and animals - More on glucose: any excess of glucose is used to rebuild the depleated stores of stored glucose (which is stored in muscle as glycogen) and then if there is still excess glucose it is converted into fatty acids which is stored as fat in the adipocytes. Blood circulatory system - made up of arteries, veins, capillaries and microcapillaries - Nutrients ( glucose, AA, fats, Lipids) travel to our 200 trilliion cells - When a microcapillarie is ruptured the process known as angiogenesis develops new ones to serve the damaged area - Anti-angiogenesis therapy: is the use of drugs or other substances to stop cancerous tumors from developing new blood vessels Fat - secondary energy source when glucose levels are low your body uses fat as an energy source - Essential fatty acids: i.e. we cant produce them and the ultimate source of these essentials are again plants. o Omega 3, omega 6, omega 9 - Body uses fatty acids from fat molecules when glucose levels are low (periods of starvation) o When your body needs glucose it starts to disassemble muscle protein
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into the amino acids (10) and those that we can make glucose from Digestion - from your mouth the food is transferred to your stomach where (for a couple of hours ) it is broken down into smaller pieces and transported to your small intestine where the final conversion to monomers occurs and they can be absorbed as the food moves down the length of the small intestine. - Carbohydrates are converted to individual glucose molecules, proteins into their constituent amino acids, and fats to fatty acids and glycerol. - All converted into monomers ( a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer) because your body can only take in molecules that it has the need for and since a lot of the food you eat has molecules that you cant use and would just get in the way of the needed nutrients reaching your cells.
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