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© 19 9 3 Nature PublishingGroup This file was created by scanning the printed publication. Errors identified by the software have been corrected; however, some errors may remain. LETTERS TO NATURE [Ascorbate] (mM) 0 20 <10 60 80 100 120 a c 3 t c c c 2 c ~ 0 0 100 200 300 5 Light intensity (mW cm- 2 ) i:: ~ ::l 8 0 5 ..c: f 0.. b t f <1 - f 1 3 ~ 2 ~ A ~ 0 0.0 0.2 0.<1 06 0.8 10 [C70] (mM) FIG. 3 a. Photocurrent measured as a function of ascorbate concentration (D) and incident light intensity (&). The system consisted of [ascor- bate] I0.7 mM C 7 ol 0.3 mM AQS. Either the ascorbate concentration was varied from 0 to 100 mM and the incident light intensity was constant at 220 mW cm- 2 (A= 400-600 nm). or the ascorbate concentration was con- stant at 100 mM and the light intensity was varied using glass filters. The photocurrent polarity and the locations of ascorbate and AQS are the same as those. in Fig. 1. b, Photocurrent measured as a function of C 70 concentra- tion with 30 mM ascorbate in one aqueous compartment. 0.2 mM AQS in the other. and incident light intensity of 220 mW cm- 2 (A= 400-600 nm). by the difficulties of transferring charge across the membrane. The use of fullerenes or of graphitic nanotubes 23 , may reduce this limitation. The stability of lipid bilayers can be vastly improved through the use of microporous filters as holders 18 The self-organizing feature of these films is a desirable charac- teristic for molecular electronics. D Received 26 May; accepted 7 December 1992. 1. Feldberg, S. W., Armen, G. H., Bell, J. A., Chang, C. K. & Wang, C. B. Biophys. J. 34, 149-163 (1981). 2. Seta, P. et al. Nature 316, 651-655 (1985). 3. Seta, P., Bienvenue, E., Maillard, P. & Momenteau, M. Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 537-543 (1989). 4. Sension, R. J., Szarl<a, A. Z., Smith, G. R. & Hochetrasser, R. M. Chem Phys. Lett. 185, 179-183 (1991). 5. Arbogast, J. W., Foote, C. S. & Kao, M. J. Am. chem. Soc. 114, 2277 -2279 (1992). 6. Kamat, P. V. J. Am. chem Soc. 113, 9705-9707 (1991). 7. Miller, B. et al. J. Am chem Soc. 113, 6291-6293 (1991). 8. Wang, Y. Nature 356, 585-587 (1992). 9. Hwang, K. C. & Mauzerall, O. J. Am. chem Soc. 114, 9705-9706 (1992). 10. Clar!<, W. M. Oxidation-Reduction Potentials of Organic Systems, 470 (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1960). 11. Allemand, P. M. et al. J. Am chem. Soc. 113, 1050-1051 (1991). 12. Wasielewski, M. R., O'Neil, M. P .• Lykke, K. R., Pellin, M. J. & Gruen, P. M. J. Am. chem Soc. 113, 277 4-2776 (1991). 13. Hung, R. R. & Grabouski, J. J. J. phys. Chem 95, 6073-6075 (1991). 14. Kim, D., Lee, M., Suh, Y. D. & Kim, S. K. J. Am. chem. Soc. 114, 4429-4430 (1992). 15. Itani, A. & Mauzerall. D. Biophys. J. 35, 79-92 (1981). 16. Drain, M. & Mauzerall, D. Biophys. J. 63, 1556-1563 (1992). 17. Krasne, S .. Eisenman, G. & Szabo, G. Science 174, 412-415 (1971). 18. Mountz, J. M. & Tien, H. T. Photochem. Photobiol. 28, 395-400 (1978). 140 19. Ajie, H. et al. J. phys. Chem 94, 8630-8633 (1990). 20. Benesch, R. E. & Benesch, R. Science 11, 447-448 (1953). 21. Schuhannk. W., Ohara, T. J., Schmidt, H. L & Heller, A. J. Am. chem Soc. 113, 1394-1397 (1991). 22. Hong, F. T. & Mauzerall, D. J. electrochem. Soc. 123, 1317-1324 (1976). 23. lijima, S. Nature 354, 56-58 (1991). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We are grateful for critical discussions with T. Marinetti. This research was supported by the NIH. C02, CH4 and N20 flux through a Wyoming snowpack and implications for global budgets R. A. Sommerfeld*, A. R. Mosiert & R. C. Musselman* * USDA Forest Service, 240 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins.
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