lecture_notes_08_(ta)

lecture_notes_08_(ta) - Lecture 8: Organization of the...

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Lecture 8: Organization of the Nervous System (TA NOTES IN RED . P LEASE NOTE THAT I AM USING AN OLD VERSION OF THE LECTURE NOTES . FIGURE AND PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE FIFTH E DITION OF OUR TEXT …) ( QUICK VOCABULARY LESSON : A NTERIOR = TOP P OSTERIOR = BOTTOM D ORSAL = BACK VENTRAL = CHEST MEDIAL = MIDDLE , TOWARLD MIDLINE ( AXIS OF SYMMETRY ) LATERAL = OUT , AWAY FROM MIDLINE NUCLEUS = COLLECTION OF CELLS INVOLVED IN THE SAME TASK WHITE MATTER = MYLENATED AXON FIBER TRACTS GREY MATTER = UNMYLENATED AXONS AND CELL BODIES ) General Organization The nervous system can be broadly divided into two major subdivisions, each of which can be further subdivided into a collection of component systems that work together to carry out specific functions (Figure 5-1) . ( I NPUT TO THE CNS IS S ENSORY , ALSO CALLED ‘A FFERENT INPUT ’. O UTPUT FROM THE CNS IS M OTOR , OFTEN CALLED ‘E FFERENT OUTPUT ‘) Central Nervous System (CNS) - The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the portion of the CNS enclosed within the skull, while the spinal cord is that portion of the CNS enclosed within the vertebral column. Brain - The brain can be grossly subdivided into the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum (Table 5-3) . (F OREBRAIN , B RAINSTEM , AND C EREBELLUM ) Cerebrum - The cerebrum is the portion of the CNS largely responsible for all of the higher cognitive, sensory and motor functions of the brain. Cerebral Cortex - The outer, highly folded surface of the cerebrum. This is a layered structure covering nearly the entire brain. Much of higher brain function takes place here (Table 5-3, Figures 5-9,5-10,5-11) . ( LOBES
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lecture_notes_08_(ta) - Lecture 8: Organization of the...

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