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lecture_notes_24_(ta) - Lectures 24 Renal Physiology...

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Lectures 24: Renal Physiology Reading: Chapter 14, pgs 501-542 (pgs 511-553, if using the 5 th edition) Urinary System - major role is to regulate the volume, electrolyte composition, and pH of the internal environment. (Figure 14-1) Consists of - pair of kidneys , pair of ureters , urinary bladder , urethra Specific functions - served by the kidneys include: ( A LL OF THESE ARE IMPORTANT FOR SOME ASPECT OF HOMEOSTASIS ) - Maintaining H 2 O balance in the body - Regulating the quantity and concentration of most extracellular (ECF) fluid ions - Maintaining proper plasma volume - Helping maintain proper acid-base balance of the body - Maintaining the proper osmolarity of body fluids - Excreting the end products of bodily metabolism such as urea and uric acid - Excreting foreign compounds such as drugs, food additives, pesticides - Secreting erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production - Secreting renin, a hormone important in salt conservation by the kidneys - Converting vitamin D into its active form ( T HESE LAST 3 MAY BE UNEXPECTED , BUT ARE IMPORTANT ) Blood - large quantities of blood enter and leave the kidneys each day (Figure 14-1). Blood enters the kidneys via the renal artery (connected to the aorta). Blood exits the kidneys via the renal vein (connected to the inferior vena cava)
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( KIDNEYS ARE POSITIONED CLOSE TO HEART , IN TERMS OF VASCULAR DISTANCE ) The nephron - ( “N EF – R ON ” ) is the functional unit of the kidney. A functional unit is the smallest unit capable of performing all of the tasks of an organ. Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons. ( SO HOW MANY DO WE HAVE ALTOGETHER ? ) Each nephron consists of a vascular component, a tubular component, and a combined vascular and tubular component. (Figure 14-3) Vascular component - includes the: (1) Afferent arteriole - brings blood to the glomerulus ( T HIS ARTERIOLE WILL BE DIALATED OR CONSTRICTED AS NEEDED BY SYMPATHETIC AND INTRINSIC FACTORS ) (2) Glomerulus -tuft of capillaries that filters plasma into the tubular component (3) Efferent arteriole - carries ( OXYGENATED ) blood from the glomerulus; only arteriole in body post capillary ( * ) (4) Peritubular capillaries - supply the renal tissue; involved with exchanges with tubular lumen
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lecture_notes_24_(ta) - Lectures 24 Renal Physiology...

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