Key Sites Cotocollao , large early village 1800- 500 BC, destroyed by volcano Cardal , adobe houses behind monumental U-shaped structure with monster-mouth entrance Cerro Sechin , Casma Valley, perimeter wall with ca. 400 carved blocks of dead people Sechin Alto is near Cerro Sechin in the Casma Valley,, one of the largest architectural complexes in the Americas. Caballo Muerto Complex : Moche Valley, Cupisnique archaeological culture. U-shaped plans, temple burial with colored sand before construction of new temple-- a symbolic act that would only be seen briefly by people Gramalote , Moche Valley, small village near the Cupisnique (Caballo Muerto) sites but seemingly independent with shamanistic religious system Key Concepts The Initial Period dates from 1700 to 800 B.C . Markers of the Initial period The widespread introduction of pottery and weaving The construction of large monuments The development of new art forms and architectural styles… Textiles and Pottery Hallmarks: ceramics and the heddle loom. This suggests interaction. The heddle is made of cord or wire and Mostly cotton (coast) but sometimes wool (highlands) Pottery vessels replace gourds The Earliest Ceramics found in Colombia at the San Jacinto site (NOT in the Central Andes ) 4000 – 3700 BC Fibre- tempered, and associated with hunter gatherers . Valdivia Ceramics Earliest Andean ceramics are from Valdivia (Ecuador). Technologically and stylistically well developed Valdivia is also known for human figurines. Mostly female figurines with large breasts, curvy hips, elaborate hairstyles/headdresses... Early Pottery share common technology and motifs” E.g., neckless ollas What are neckless ollas? Altecomates à Pots and vessels used for cooking tended not to be decorated, while non- cooking pottery was. Cooler, dryer climate may have lead to the migration of people with pottery from tropical regions to the Central Andes Villages and Ceremonial Centers Ecuador is “precocious” in the appearance of farming communities like Cotocollao
Simple rectangular wattle and daub (which is?) houses. No ceremonial architecture but a cemetery. Diverse pottery, artifacts (esp. obsidian) and “fully agricultural” What is obsidian? Obsidian common because the site was near a volcano… how did that work out? Site abandoned after a huge eruption… Culture and Population Centers of the Initial Period 3 distinct areas in the Initial Period 1. Manchay sites on the Central Coast of Peru, such as Cardal 2. Casma Valley sites such as Cerro Sechin. 3. Caballo Muerto Complex in the Moche Valley (Cupisnique culture)… Initial Period Culture Shifts On the coast of Peru, some of the Late Preceramic centers continue into the Initial Period, but others are abandoned. possibly natural disasters U-Shaped Centers The Manchay Archaeological Culture refers to Initial Period U-shaped centers often decorated with unbaked clay friezes.
- Fall '16
- lake titicaca, initial period, Moche Valley, Cardal