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lecture_notes_02_(ta) - Lecture 2 Principles of Cellular...

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Lecture 2: Principles of Cellular Physiology (TA notes in red. Please note that I am editing an old version of the lecture notes and figure references are for the Fifth Edition of our text) Reading: chapter 2 chapter 3, section: membrane structure and composition, pgs 50-54 (pgs 47-51, if using 3 rd edition) (factoid-von Leewenhook in 1682 was first observer of individual cells. He used film from his own teeth and an early microscope.) Levels of Organization - ( Figure 2-1) Plasma membrane (phopholipid bilayer barrier) Nucleus Cytoplasm (the entire interior of cell) Organelles endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth. Rough is studded with ribosomes. What do ribosomes do?) Golgi complex (important for protein sorting & post-translational modification) lysosomes (cellular digestion) peroxisomes (detoxification) mitochondria (cells’ energy factories, ATP) vaults (protect cargo—recently discovered, small) Cytosol (aqueous, semi-liquid, 55% of cells’ volume!) Cytoskeleton (helps maintain shape and traffic cargo) microtubules microfilaments intermediate filaments microtrabecular lattice (DeBello questions: -why organelles? -how big are cells? (10-20 micrometers) -how thick is cell membrane? (about 10 nanometers) -how large are individual proteins? (1-3 nanometers) Plasma membrane - thin membrane enclosing each cell (Figure 3-1)
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composed of phospholipid bilayer (Figure 3-2)  (an energetically efficient configuration) separates intracellular and extracellular spaces serves as a barrier to diffusion contains proteins and carbohydrates that reside within the bilayer (Figure 3-3) (question: what part of bilayer is hydrophobic?, hydrophilic?) membrane proteins : (these are extremely important) can selectivley transport molecules and ions can act as receptors to signal responses by the cell (question: what kind of signals?) can form adhesions and junctions with other cells Nucleus - membrane bound organelle containing the genetic material (all somatic cells contain a complete diploid set of the organism’s genetic material, although only a subset of genes are expressed by any given cell) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - genetic material directs protein synthesis and serves as genetic blueprint during cell replication Ribonucleic acid (RNA) - carries out protein synthesis messenger RNA DNA’s genetic code is transferred to mRNA via transcription   and the message exits the nucleus ribosomal RNA participates in reading the message and translating the message into the appropriate protein sequence ( translation)
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