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Scan 3 - Review — Final Exam page 1 Review for the Final...

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Unformatted text preview: Review — Final Exam page 1 Review for the Final Exam Fwd Eu»: Wedncsdam Madam, Psychology 140M *Scmuo out \oxgeqm. Human Memory (Winter, 2001) Test will cover Chapters 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17 and Lecture 2) 3) 8) 9) Notes. In lecture, we explored how autobiographical memory is I influenced by the human need to belong. How would you describe this need? How is autobiographical memory organized into general schemes and specific schemes? In relationship research, what is egocentric attribution? What is the account narrative method of research for relationship research? What is Bowlby's theory of attachment?. How does attachment affect memory representations for security and trust? Know Ainsworth three types of attachments shown by infants and mothers? Be able to describe the attachment styles. What does Holmes's (1991) research indicate about early attachment styles carrying over to adult relationships? . How does divorce affect one's social network? In lecture, we reviewed research using split brain patients regarding memory functioning. What operation "splits" the brain? What has the split—brain research told us about the false memory syndrome? What is lateralization?l What are the general functions of the left and right hemispheres? Know Wolford's experiment indicating how split brain patients perform in a guessing task. How are Wolford's findings interpreted? What is comparative cognition? How is short-term memory tested in pigeons? Who was Clever Hans? Why was the case of Clever Hans an embarrassment to psychology? Can ravens think? What is long-term potentiation (LTP)? How does the hippocampus produce LTP? What is the function of glutamate in the hippocampus?' What do NMDA receptors accomplish in the hippocampus? Who started the modern theory of consolidation? What is a reverberatory circuit and how does it relate to LTP? 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 23) Review — Final Exam page 3 What caused psychogenic amnesia in Schacter's subject, Lumberjack? What clue did Schacter use to establish Lumberjack's identity? What triggers psychogenic amnesia? What 'are the characteristics of psychogenic amnesia? Could What are the properties of the glucocorticoids? What brain organ these substances trigger psychogenic amnesia? is affected by these hormones? From Chapter 9, what conditioning procedure did Twitmyer (1902) investigate? Does Twitmyer's work duplicate Pavlov's famous experiments on classical conditioning (p 145-146)? What famous experiment did Thorndike do with a cat? What is the famous law of effect? (p 146). How does cognition affect conditioning? Know the experiment conducted by Hilgard, Campbell and Sears 1938 (p 147). Why does behavior modification sometimes fail to remove fear (p 166)? From Chapter 12, what is the Galton cuing technique for the study of autobiographical memory (p 211)? What is the technique known as the autobiographical memory schedule (p 211)? Using ' schedule, what did Baddeley and his colleagues discover about the ability of normal subjects and amnesic subjects to remember semantic and episodic memories (ps 211-212)? Review the tip—of—the tongue phenomenon (p 214). Please study the section on strategies of recollection and know the results of the Williams and Hollan (1981) study (ps 216- 217). What autobiographical events are the most difficult to remember (p 220)? What is retroactive amnesia (RA) and what do the gradients for retroactive amnesia look like (p 222)? Can RA be produced by electroconvulsive shock therapy (p 223)? What is autobiographical confabulation (pgs 226—227)? According to Baddeley what went wrong with R. J.'s memory system and brain to produce the autobiographical confabulation (pgs 226—227)? From Chapter 13, what is the linguistic relativity hypothesis (p 230)? What is the symbolic fallacy studied by Johnson—Laird (p 239)? What is Bartlett'conept of the memory schema (p 240)? What is the relationship between semantic and autobiographical memory (p 253)? From Chapter 15, please know the characteristics of repression (ps 273-274). How does repression relate to normal forgetting (ps 274-275)? Please study very carefully the section on psychogenic amnesia and know the characteristics of this type of amnesia (ps 279-281). Name _ ._ __ ___._._.._ ..__.._ Psychology 140 M - Human Memory 2) Form A page 1 Final Ekam Fall, 1999 Please indicate Form A on your sCantron The shape of forgetting curves found in several studies of long- term memory indicates that the rate of forgetting: a) is slow initially after learning; however, as the retention interval increases, the rate of forgetting also increases. b) shows the same rate of decrease throughout the entire retention interval. 0) is rapid following learning but the rate slows down as the retention interval continues. d) is essentially flat throughout the entire range of the retention interval. Which of the following theories claims that forgetting is due to the elimination of information in long-term memory? c) interference theory a) retrieval cue hypothesis d) encoding specificity theory b) decay theory Carmen is trying to remember a list of holiday gifts that she must buy. She tires to connect each item to a series of rhymes using numbers and words, such as "two is a shoe". Carmen is using the to remember the list of gifts. c) peg word system d) key word system a) serial chunking b) method of loci According to your knowledge of memory, which of the following would NOT help to improve long term memory recall on tests? a) distributed study of the test material. b) studying early in the night and getting sufficient sleep following studying. ‘ c) attaching as many retrieval cues to the material being studied as possible. d) studying in a place that is different from the place where the test will be given. 3 8) Form A page 2 In his research, Glenberg used a continuous paired associate learning procedure. As part of the research design, Glenberg gave the subjects 2 opportunities to study each paired associate. His results indicated that: a) when the 2 study trials were closer together, the ability to recall the paired associate was improved over longer retention intervals. when the 2 study trials were farther apart, the ability to recall the paired associate was improved over longer retention intervals. c) how close the 2 study trials were together did not influence the ability to recall the paired associate over the retention interval. the 2 study trials had to be separated by 100 intervening paired associates before distributed practice enhanced recall of the paired associate. b) d) One implication of Glenberg's findings is: a) cramming allows good recall on an exam given shortly after cramming is completed; however, cramming is not good for long—term retention. cramming produces poor recall on an exam given shortly after cramming is completed; however, cramming is very good for long—term retention. c) cramming is a good strategy for doing Well on an exam and is also good for long term retention of the studied material. cramming is a poor strategy for doing well on an impending exam and also is a poor strategy for long-term retention of the studied material. b) d) In the standard proactive interference paradigm, the experimental subjects learn in succession paired associate lists designated as: a) A—B; A—D A- b) A-B; C-B C- c) B; C-D d) B; A-B In the standard proactive interference paradigm, the experimental subjects recall after the retention interval a paired associate list designated: c) D-E a) C—B d) A—D b) A-B 13) 14) Form A page 4 The deficient processing theory claims that massed practice is inferior to spaced practice regarding memory retention because: a) massed practice does not allow the hippocampus to process information as effectively as spaced practice does. b) massed practice, as compared to spaced practice, is more likely to involve a switch from elaborative rehearsal to maintenance rehearsal due to the lack of concentration. c) massed practice is likely to cause a greater increase in proactive interference as compared to spaced practice. d) massed practice is likely to cause a greater increase in the rate of decay of information in lOng—term memory as compared to spaced practice. In their experiment, Peterson and Potts (1982) had subjects learn 1 or 4 facts that they did not know about a famous person. Then the subjects were tested two week later for facts they had already known about the famous person and facts that they had recently learned. Peterson and Potts discovered that: a) latency times for recognizing previously known facts and recently known facts were not affected by learning new facts about a famous person. b) latency times for recognizing previously known facts and recently learned facts increased as the subjects learned more facts about the famous person. c) latency times for recognizing previously known facts did not change; however, the latency for recognizing recently learned facts about a famous person increased as the number of facts learned increased. d) latency times for recognizing previously known facts about a famous person increased as the subjects had to learn more new facts about the famous person; however, the latency times for recognizing recently learned facts about a famous person did not change as the subjects had to learn more facts. Form A page 6 19) Encoding specificity tries to explain forgetting by which of the following ways? a) Forgetting is due to a combination of decay and interference taking place simultaneously in the memory system. b) Forgetting is due to the failure of retrieval cues to be present in a memory test. c) Forgetting is due to the suppression of spreading activation within the memory network. d) Forgetting is due to a lack of consolidation of the material being studied. 20) Which of the following statements is not true of the tip—of-the- tongue (TOT) phenomenon according to Brown and McNeil's research? a) TOT tends to occur at least one time each week and its frequency will increase with age. b) Naturally occurring TOT involves the names of personal acquaintances. c) During TOT, subjects cannot guess the first letter of the missing item but can provide the last letter of the missing item about 80% of the time. d) About 50% of all TOT states are successfully resolved within a minute from their start. 21) Herman has developed a multi—modal approach for memory improvement. According to Herman: a) the only factor necessary to improve memory retrieval is to use mnemonic devices. b) increases in self esteem seem to improve memory retrieval. c) proactive interference can be decreased by increasing the amount of retroactive interference in a learning task. d) decay of memories can be blocked if subjects take large dosages of Vitamin E. 22) According to Herman, which of the following is necessary to develop what he calls "super memory"? a) being in good physical condition. b) using elaborative rehearsal as a content process strategy. c) being free of anxiety and depression. d) all of the above. Form A page 8 27) It is common to forget the proper name of a particular person: a) and also forget what that person looks like. b) but remember what that person looks like. c) and the proper names of other people who look like that person. d) and also forget how we met that person. 28) Chaotic thinking is a cognitive style best suited for: a) making long—term plans and anticipating expected events in order to prepare for them. b) remembering events that produce a strong fear reaction. ‘0) dealing with unexpected events that produce a crisis. d) remembering implicit memories as opposed to explicit memories. 29) Which of the following people would be most characteristic of a chaotic thinker? a) Joan who lives her daily life by a strict schedule in that she gets up the same time each day and goes to bed the same time each day. b) Pete who tries to solve his problems by asking other people for advice and then applies that advice to the problem. c) Janice who is so proud that she believes there is no problem that she cannot solve. d) Paul who believes there is more than one way to solve a problem and often uses intuition to solve problems. 30) Which of the following is not a characteristic of the memory system for a chaotic thinker? a) Chaotic thinkers have semantic knowledge for many different topics. ' b) Chaotic thinkers, although they rely on memory schemas, have a large store of specific memories. c) Chaotic thinkers are less interested in prospective memory than are ordered thinkers. d) Chaotic thinkers, compared to ordered thinkers, are not very good at using mnemonic devices in order to remember information. 36) 37) 38) 39) ' Form A page 10 According to research conducted by LeDoux, fear conditioning is_ controlled by a "fast" neural circuit running from the: a) hippocampus to the cortex. b) thalamus to the cortex. c) thalamus to the amygdala. d) amygdala to the hypothalamus. The phenomenon of the flashbulb memory indicates that emotional events are very well remembered. However, there are clinical cases where emotional trauma is linked to forgetting. Using the case of the patient known as Lumberjack, what kinds of emotional situations may produce psychogenic amnesia? a) situations involving a personal loss leading to feelings of grief, stress, and/or abandonment. b) situations involving strong fear involving danger to the self. c) situations where strong anxiety and depression are felt as a result of a very traumatic experience. d) situations involving intense feelings of jealously. Based upon the work of Janet with his patient known as Madame D, it appears that during psychogenic amnesia. a) explicit procedural memory does not function b) interference effects do not occur c) retrieval cue failure is absent implicit memory for events functions The forgetting principle that has been proposed as the basis for the multiple personality disorder is: c) source memory failure a) suppression d) dissociation b} repression Form A page 12 43) Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding retrograde amnesia (RA)? a) Retrograde amnesia involves the inability to remember events taking place before an injury has occurred to the brain. b) Korsakoff's syndrome often produces cases of RA. c) recall of information may be improved in patients with RA by providing retrieval cues. d) The patient with RA has the easiest time remembering events of the recent past, (i.e., autobiographical events occurring in the year before the onset of RA). 44) According to the textbook and lectures, retrieval cues are an important part of the memory process. Which one of the following statements is NOT true regarding how retrieval cues operate? a) Research on retrieval cues indicates that subjects recognize more than they can recall. b) Retrieval cues are especially helpful for remembering information that cannot be spontaneously recalled. c) Mnemonic devices usually serve as powerful retrieval cues. d) Retrieval cues only facilitate recall if they are stored at the same time as the information to be remembered. 45) The textbook mentions that very little research has been done on strategies that subjects use to access their memories. However, one such study by Williams and Hollan (1981) asked adult subjects to remember the names of children they went to school with. The results of this study indicated that: a) Subjects remembered all the names they could within 10- minutes from the start of the retrieval session. b) Subjects cumulatively remembered more correct than fabricated names over a 10-hour retrieval session. Therefore, memory recall for a particular task can persist for hours. c) Subjects cumulatively remembered more fabricated names than correct names over a 10-hour retention interval. Therefore, valid memory recall for a particular task cannot persist for hours. d) Subjects found this task too difficult and began to suffer catastrophic interference for all names in their memories. 49) 50) Form A page 14 The textbook describes the characteristics of the pure amnesic syndrome. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of this syndrome? a) Pure amnesics have a normal working memory system. b) Pure amnesics have good semantic memory based upon information acquired before the onset of the amnesia. c) Pure amnesics are still capable of forming new episodic memories following the onset of the amnesia. d) Pure amnesics are capable of forming new procedural memories following the onset of the amnesia. The brain must show "plasticity" regarding memory consolidation. Which of the following statements best describes brain plasticity regarding long—term memory? a) Plasticity refers to the ability of the hippocampus to hold information before the information is stored in the long-term memory system. b) The architecture of the brain cannot be changed by experience. Therefore, the formation of new long—term memories must involve the formation of new firing patterns among the existing neurons. 0) In order to form a new long term memory, experience must change the architecture of the brain. d) In order to form a new long term memory, a new connection must be formed linking the hippocampus to the amygdala. 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