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Test #3 Review #3

# Test #3 Review #3 - Lecture#20 Devising a plan-coming up...

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Lecture #20 Devising a plan—coming up with a plan to solve a problem, when you already have a representation o Algorithms—a method that leads to a guaranteed solution if one exists Allows you to consider all possible moves in a problem space o Heuristic—doesn’t guarantee; short cut or rule of thumb; will often lead you to solution Difference reduction—at any point select the operator that moves you closer to the goal state; is the new state that you will apply going to move you closer to the goal state. It is more difficult to see solutions that involve steps that move away from the goal state Often not advantageous; example of person calling dog from other side of fence Hobbits and Orcs—goal is to move all to the other side of river; people have difficulty solving because of their tendency to rely on difference reduction; at one point, you have to move backwards in order to get to goal state Means-end analysis—incorporates ideas similar to difference reduction, but has other elements that allow if to do a better job Flow chart—match current state to goal state and find difference; set out with goal of eliminating that difference (subgoal) Look a problem and identify largest obstacle between current state and goal state; set subgoal of reducing that difference; select operator to allow you to achieve subgoal; see whether you can actually apply operator; if you can’t you you have to set a new subgoal that removes obstacle preventing you from applying operator This is similar to the ACT model that we discussed Working Backwards—you transform the goal state so that it is more similar to the initial state; start with the solution and see what

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Test #3 Review #3 - Lecture#20 Devising a plan-coming up...

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