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Unformatted text preview: Lecture #16 Language levelslanguage is a hierarchical structure; put together using sounds o Phonemethe smallest unit of speech sound If you change one of them, you could change the meaning of a word Vary from language to language; some dont exists in languages L vs. R in Japanese Tonal differences (change in pitch) can change meaning in some languages Aspirated vs. unaspiratedexhale of air for certain phonemes changes meaning in some languages Clucking sounds in some African languages Rules of ordercan be applied to random combinations and you say either yes or no o Morphemessmallest unit of sounds that have a definable meaning or grammatical function Prefixes, suffixes, roots, entire words Languages have specific rules for how they can be combined o Wordscombinations of one or more morphemes Many are extremely uncommon, but we can still recognize and use them o Phrasesorganized grouping of words, the building blocks of sentences Syntaxrules that determine word order o Sentencegroup of phrases that convey a certain meaning Word meaningthe thought the person has that they are trying to convey to us o Corresponds to the concepts and categories we have in long term memory o Words symbolize the concepts that we have o Meaning is assigned by looking at the relationships of the words in the sentence Sentence meaningcombining words to assign meaning o Phrase structuresomewhat like a sentence diagram; you can start to get an idea of what the sentence means; rules specify how the words go together People used to think that the key to understanding meaning was understanding phrase structure Problemssame phrase structure with two different possible meanings; two different phrase structures with the same meaning (active and passive voice) o Chomskyproposed the difference between surface and deep structure o Surface structurethe phrase structure that applies to the order in which the words were actually spoken o Deep structurean underlying phrase structure; where the meaning resides It is the meaning rather than the surface Propositionsays what the actor, action and recipient are Attitudeindicates where the focus of the sentence is; says the stance the speaker adopts toward the proposition o Transformational grammarrules that transform between different phrase structures; transform surface structure o Paraphrasedifferent surface structures have a deep structure that conveys the same meaning o Ambiguitycase where wording has more than one meaning Lexicalwhen a word has multiple meanings Coldillness or temperature These are a difficulty for computer translation Syntactic ambiguitysame words can be grouped into more than one surface phrase structure Referential ambiguitysame word or phrase can refer to two different things in the sentence Resolving lexical ambiguityhow do we figure out what the correct meaning of...
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course PSYCH 240 taught by Professor Gehring during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.
- Winter '08
- Cognitive Psychology