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Test #3 Review #1 - Lecture#16 • Language...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture #16 • Language levels—language is a hierarchical structure; put together using sounds o Phoneme—the smallest unit of speech sound If you change one of them, you could change the meaning of a word Vary from language to language; some don’t exists in languages • L vs. R in Japanese • Tonal differences (change in pitch) can change meaning in some languages • Aspirated vs. unaspirated—exhale of air for certain phonemes changes meaning in some languages • Clucking sounds in some African languages Rules of order—can be applied to random combinations and you say either yes or no o Morphemes—smallest unit of sounds that have a definable meaning or grammatical function Prefixes, suffixes, roots, entire words Languages have specific rules for how they can be combined o Words—combinations of one or more morphemes Many are extremely uncommon, but we can still recognize and use them o Phrases—organized grouping of words, the building blocks of sentences Syntax—rules that determine word order o Sentence—group of phrases that convey a certain meaning • Word meaning—the thought the person has that they are trying to convey to us o Corresponds to the concepts and categories we have in long term memory o Words symbolize the concepts that we have o Meaning is assigned by looking at the relationships of the words in the sentence • Sentence meaning—combining words to assign meaning o Phrase structure—somewhat like a sentence diagram; you can start to get an idea of what the sentence means; rules specify how the words go together People used to think that the key to understanding meaning was understanding phrase structure Problems—same phrase structure with two different possible meanings; two different phrase structures with the same meaning (active and passive voice) o Chomsky—proposed the difference between surface and deep structure o Surface structure—the phrase structure that applies to the order in which the words were actually spoken o Deep structure—an underlying phrase structure; where the meaning resides It is the meaning rather than the surface Proposition—says what the actor, action and recipient are Attitude—indicates where the focus of the sentence is; says the stance the speaker adopts toward the proposition o Transformational grammar—rules that transform between different phrase structures; transform surface structure o Paraphrase—different surface structures have a deep structure that conveys the same meaning o Ambiguity—case where wording has more than one meaning Lexical—when a word has multiple meanings • Cold—illness or temperature • These are a difficulty for computer translation Syntactic ambiguity—same words can be grouped into more than one surface phrase structure Referential ambiguity—same word or phrase can refer to two different things in the sentence • Resolving lexical ambiguity—how do we figure out what the correct meaning of...
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Test #3 Review #1 - Lecture#16 • Language...

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