Review #4 - Lecture#8 Tuesday Visual information in long...

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Lecture #8 Tuesday, January 29, 2008 Visual information in long term memory—very large capacity; people have an extraordinary ability to recognize pictures o Memory for pictures is much better than memory for words In studies: when people are shown pictures, they are about 100% accurate immediately after and above 90% 3 days after. When people are shown word, they are about 88% accurate immediately after and back to chance 3 days after. o Visual memory is poor when people are asked to recall unattended/unimportant information Very difficult to recognize images when the errors (foils) are similar to the one that you are trying to recognize Good recognition involves attention to details, meaning of details (what they mean and have they are relevant to your task), and distinct alternatives. o Richer Code Hypothesis—image has a lot of information/detail. There is more information is the representation in visual information than words. When you are asked to recognize it, there is more to go on. This is incorrect—compared photos, line drawings, line drawings with more details and verbal descriptions of the same scene Visual memory was good in all cases; it was not the amount of information that was helping people remember All visuals were better than verbal o Dual code hypothesis—when you are given stimulus, you can create a verbal code or a visual code (picture in your brain). Can use both if given picture Compared concrete words (you can create a image and verbal code for like “car”) and abstract words (can have verbal code only “virtue”) If it has two codes, it will be remembered better Memory is bad for unimportant details because you don’t create a verbal code for them; we might have a visual code Visual code doesn’t help distinguish between foils and correct image o Cognitive Maps—you have visual information that you store in your head that represents the area around you (geographical information, etc.)
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