Test #2 Review #2 - Lecture #12 Remembering verbatim vs....

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Lecture #12 Remembering verbatim vs. gist information—when people are trying to remember sentences, they are very good at remembering the meaning, but not verbatim o Demonstrated by in class experiment where he read various sentences o There were no old sentences, but many seemed the same because they carried similar meanings Syntactic information—the same thing as grammar; the grammatical structure can be active or passive voice o Sachs (Galileo Story)—subjects were read a paragraph, then read sentences and had to determine if it was the same or different in some way They receive 4 different types of sentences Identical—exactly the same Semantic difference—sentence has a different meaning Syntatic difference—sentence had the same meaning but was in a different voice Word order difference—words are changed around Also varied the amount of time between the paragraph and the test Semantic difference showed the best performance, especially after time o Memory for wording is good right after you hear something, but memory for meaning is good for a longer time Central—the important information o Rating importance of ideas—group 1 rates the importance of ideas; group 2 reads and is tested Ideas that were rated most important were the ones that the other group remembered o Children show tendency to remember important ideas This is automatic: they can’t identify which ideas are important, but they remember them anyway o Traffic and Weather—people have poor recall You need some kind of strategy beforehand, it is not obvious from the report what is central Peripheral—unimportant information Prior Knowledge—if you know the topic of a paragraph beforehand, your memory is going to be better for it o Washing clothes example o Balloons example—shown picture illustrated in a picture Only the accurate illustration helped and only when it was presented before the text o Hindering comprehension War of the ghosts—British students read Native American myth
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and tried to recall People distorted things from the paragraph to fit their culture Constructive memory—memory isn’t just a tape recorder; it is a more active process; when you recall you are constructing a memory; you construct it according to your past experiences Schema—describing what kind of prior knowledge is operating o Generalized conceptual knowledge that is used in understanding things o Helps to organize concepts o Tells us what to expect in a new situation o What we can infer, even though information isn’t stated directly o Script (event) Schema—describes a particular sequences of events that happens when you are in a situations (i.e. restaurant) Usually things happen and they happen in the same order Evidence—people agree on what is in script; recall things in script order (even if occurred in different order in text); faster reading (if text describes things according to script); recall script items that
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course PSYCH 240 taught by Professor Gehring during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Test #2 Review #2 - Lecture #12 Remembering verbatim vs....

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