BIOL 102: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 3
will be a series of multiple choice and short-answer questions related to the material presented in lecture
and in the readings and homework. The greatest emphasis will be on material from lecture. There are no make-up
exams (see syllabus) with the exception of ISU students with a legitimate excuse (e.g. athletes, arts, etc.). Be on time
for the exam and bring a pencil.
Readings for the exam
are focused on Chapters: 31 and 33. You may also read parts of Ch. 19, 20, and 21 for
specific phylogenetic and animal development information. If you do not have a textbook, there are some on reserve
in the Biology Learning Center, Life Sciences Rm. 208. It is always a good idea to read and write out answers to the
The Chapter Summary and the Self-Quiz questions may also be helpful. You may also want to
review your lab materials.
If a topic is not on the review sheet it will not be on the exam.
A review of topics to be covered:
Classification of animals within the Domains & Kingdoms of life, closest ancestors of the animals. Animal
synapomorphies, approximate origin date of animals, evolutionary trends in body plans (tissues, development,
symmetry, body cavity, appendages), major animal lineages.
Fertilization, cleavage, blastula, and gastrulation; distinct patterns between protostomes and deuterostomes,
including cleavage patterns, fate of early cells, fate of blastopore, and formation of coelom. Genetic control of
development, Hox genes.
ANIMAL EVOLUTION- EARLY BRANCHES.
Early lineages: Porifera and Cnidaria.
Key features of Porifera, including how they feed, reproduce, and disperse.
Key features of Cnidarians, including body forms and life-cycles, feeding and cnidocytes. Coral reefs.
ANIMAL EVOLUTION- DEUTEROSTOME PHYLA
Synapomorphies of Deuterostomes. Key features of two clades: Ambulacraria and Chordata. Key features of
Chordates. Major events in vertebrate evolution. Major groups of fishes. Evolution of tetrapods from lobe-finned
, modern amphibians.
EVOLUTION OF TERRESTRIAL TETRAPODS (AMNIOTES). Major innovations in transition to land. Key
features of the major groups within the reptiles and mammals, evolutionary relationships among the taxa.
Adaptations in birds and mammals.
Key Review Questions:
What is an animal?
-All are multicellular – have development from a single cell through a blastula
-Sexual reproduction – usually only gametes are haploid.
-All are heterotrophs.
When and where did animals originate?
Colonial flagellated protist, functional specialization – when?
What evidence indicates that animals are monophyletic?