BIOL 102: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 4
Readings for the exam
are focused on Chapters: 31 and 32. If you do not have a textbook, there are some on reserve in the Biology Learning
Center, Life Sciences Rm. 208. It is always a good idea to read and write out answers to the “Recap” questions.
The Chapter Summary and the
Self-Quiz questions may also be helpful. There is a FREE ACCESS website with the textbook (www.thelifewire.com).
This site has interactive
quizzes, flashcards, vocabulary lists, “matching” games, and chapter summaries. You may also want to review your lab materials.
If a topic is
not on the review sheet it will not be on the exam.
A review of topics to be covered:
Early development that distinguishes the two triploblastic bilaterian clades: protostomes and deuterostomes.
Protostome development: spiral cleavage, determinate, schizocoelous, blastopore becomes mouth.
that surrounds digestive tract, ventral nervous system.
Clades within the protostomes:
traits that distinguish the Lophotrochozoa (lophophore, trochophore, cilia) from the Ecdysozoa (molt, no cilia).
Approximate timeline of bilaterian evolution, major clades.
100 Billion years ago:
1 Billion years ago: single cell organisms
570 Million Precambrian:
much diversity in soft bodied animals
540 Million Paleozoic:
400 Million Devonian:
250 million Mesozoic: most modern fauna
Diversity of life styles within the Protostomes.
Key features of development and anatomy.
Early development is similar to deuterostomes but genes are protostome.
Shaped like an arrow, predatory
Distinguish the four major clades:
Ectoprocts, “Platyzoa” = flatworms, rotifers and
ribbon worms, Phoronids and Brachiopods, and Annelids and Molluscs.
For each clade, recognize key
features, life-cycles, feeding strategies, type of digestive tract, mode of respiration, reproduction.
Bryozoans: “moss animals”
they are colonial, with secreted ‘house’,
fertilization and budding, feed with a lophophore, breath with cilia
Flatworms: internal parasites, most absorb digested food from tract of host, have a
mouth that turns into a highly branched sac, exchange gas though surface,
complete gut and digestive tract, hydrostatic skeleton, corona of cilia traps
food and a mastax to grind the food, external fertilization, breath with cilia
complete digestive tract, Rhyncocoel with a muscular proboscis that can
be shot at prey, external fertilization, cilia to breath,
Phoronids: live in pairs, secrete a chitin tube, feed with a lophophore, closed digestive, external
fertilization, respire with cilia
2 part shell connected with ligaments, feed with a lophophore, external
fertilization, closed digestive, respire with cilia
Segmented bodies, each coelom is separated in each segment, gas exchange through skin,