Study Guide 4 - Spring 2008 BIOL 102: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM...

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Spring 2008 BIOL 102: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 4 Readings for the exam are focused on Chapters: 31 and 32. If you do not have a textbook, there are some on reserve in the Biology Learning Center, Life Sciences Rm. 208. It is always a good idea to read and write out answers to the “Recap” questions. The Chapter Summary and the Self-Quiz questions may also be helpful. There is a FREE ACCESS website with the textbook ( This site has interactive quizzes, flashcards, vocabulary lists, “matching” games, and chapter summaries. You may also want to review your lab materials. If a topic is not on the review sheet it will not be on the exam. A review of topics to be covered: Protostomes: Early development that distinguishes the two triploblastic bilaterian clades: protostomes and deuterostomes. Protostome development: spiral cleavage, determinate, schizocoelous, blastopore becomes mouth. Anterior brain that surrounds digestive tract, ventral nervous system. Clades within the protostomes: traits that distinguish the Lophotrochozoa (lophophore, trochophore, cilia) from the Ecdysozoa (molt, no cilia). Approximate timeline of bilaterian evolution, major clades. 100 Billion years ago: no life 1 Billion years ago: single cell organisms 650 Million: animals 570 Million Precambrian: much diversity in soft bodied animals 550 Million: exoskeletons 540 Million Paleozoic: arthropods 400 Million Devonian: many fishes 250 million Mesozoic: most modern fauna Diversity of life styles within the Protostomes. Arrow Worms: difficult classification. Key features of development and anatomy. Early development is similar to deuterostomes but genes are protostome. Shaped like an arrow, predatory using sharplets. Lophotrochozoans: Distinguish the four major clades: Ectoprocts, “Platyzoa” = flatworms, rotifers and ribbon worms, Phoronids and Brachiopods, and Annelids and Molluscs. For each clade, recognize key features, life-cycles, feeding strategies, type of digestive tract, mode of respiration, reproduction. Ectoprocts: Bryozoans: “moss animals” they are colonial, with secreted ‘house’, external fertilization and budding, feed with a lophophore, breath with cilia Platyzoa: Flatworms: internal parasites, most absorb digested food from tract of host, have a mouth that turns into a highly branched sac, exchange gas though surface, reproduction? Rotifers: complete gut and digestive tract, hydrostatic skeleton, corona of cilia traps food and a mastax to grind the food, external fertilization, breath with cilia Ribbon Worms: complete digestive tract, Rhyncocoel with a muscular proboscis that can be shot at prey, external fertilization, cilia to breath, Phoronids: live in pairs, secrete a chitin tube, feed with a lophophore, closed digestive, external fertilization, respire with cilia Brachiopods: 2 part shell connected with ligaments, feed with a lophophore, external fertilization, closed digestive, respire with cilia Annelids: Segmented bodies, each coelom is separated in each segment, gas exchange through skin,
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Study Guide 4 - Spring 2008 BIOL 102: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM...

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