Vocabulary List for Exam 1
- change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such
processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.
- The process of genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to
- a difference or deviation in structure or character from others of the same
species or group.
- capable of being inherited; inheritable; hereditary.
- the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them
to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or
competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than
others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding
- Random fluctuations in the frequency of the appearance of a gene in a
small isolated population, presumably owing to chance rather than natural selection.
- a mating of individuals of different strains but usually of the same breed.
Inbreeding - he mating of closely related individuals, as cousins, sire-daughter, brother-
sister, or self-fertilized plants, which tends to increase the number of individuals that are
homozygous for a trait and therefore increases the appearance of recessive traits.
to pair for the purpose of breeding.
any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are
responsible for hereditary variation.
a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable
characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome.
either the male or female division of a species, esp. as differentiated with reference
to the reproductive functions.
Genetic bottle neck
the genetic contribution of an individual to the next generation's gene pool
relative to the average for the population, usually measured by the number of offspring or
close kin that survive to reproductive age.
Parsimony analysis -
option of the simplest assumption in the formulation of a theory or in
the interpretation of data, especially in accordance with the rule of Ockham's razor.
Any of three primary divisions of living systems, consisting of the eukaryotes,
bacteria, and archaea, that rank above a kingdom in taxonomic systems that are based on
similarities of DNA sequences.
Any of various single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria,
often thriving in extreme environmental conditions.