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Unformatted text preview: No real schools of IR theory prior to WWII o Levels of Analysis: o o Endogenous-domestic/individual level o o Exogenous-international/system level o o Values: culture-specific or universal? o o Structure/Agency o o Mental Maps and Sources of Knowledge o o Multiplication of actors/networks/inputs o o Speed of communications o o Complex interdependence eventually leads to… o o o …Globalization: the positive and the negative o o Reduction of state sovereignty and of risk of war o o Increase in resentment, enmity, desire for “revenge” o Strengths of Liberalism Belief in activist institutional organisation Universal, international, holistic perspective Refusal to accept “laws of the jungle” o Weaknesses of Liberalism No prescription for armed force Divisions bet interventionists and non-interv.s Self-righteous moralising normative feature 1. Realism and Power Politics • Failure of liberalism (“ appeasement” ) to constrain fascism • The most influential school of IR theory • Draws on theories from Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes o Natural state of the world = anarchic & dangerous o States , (national interest/survival) = primary actors o Aim: maximise relative gain via power o Self-help and sovereignty = key notions 1 o Pessimistic about order via international institutions • Prevention of war & stability via balance of power • Change via shifting strategic alliances reflecting b. of p. • Philosophy, ethics and morality: little or no place in IR o Strengths of Realism Explanation of sources of conflict Appropriate to post WWII + the nuclear age Rejection normative “wishful-thinking” o Weaknesses of realism Cannot account for inter-state co-operation Ignores role of other actors in intnat. system No attempt to improve situation of the world No clear prescriptions for action 2. Battle between Neo-liberalism and Neo-Realism (70s/80s) • Keohane & Nye (1972) pose challenge to realism: o Interdependence, transnationalism , non-state actors o Accuse realists of minimising cooperation o Complex interdependence (K & N 1977) determines relat.s between states o Economic dynamics behind IR • Realist theories refined by Neo-realism (Waltz, 1979) o Sometimes called structural realism o Rejects state-level theory in favour of global level o Systemic constraints dictate state behavior o Anarchy reigns & states differ only in capacity o States seek to maintain hierarchical position 3. The 1990s Constructivist Critique of Rationalism (Wendt, Katzenstein, Onuf, Risse) • Failure of IR theory to foresee/explain End of Cold War • 1989 opened up new space for alternative approaches • New generation IR scholars dissatisfied w. critical theory • Basic tenets of constructivism: o Normative/ideational structures are crucial o Shared ideas/beliefs/values influence soc./pol. action o Norms/ideas shape social identity of political actors o Identities inform interests and actions o Realists ignore how actors’ develop interests 2...
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