Final-ID-list - Zachary DeWitt ID list for the Final Exam...

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Zachary DeWitt Tuesday, December 6, 2005 ID list for the Final Exam Perestroika – Literally, restructuring. The policy of political and economic liberalization implemented in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s. Gorbachev intended to liberalize and reform communism with glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). The reforms were actual institutional reforms in the economy and political system (including democratic participation and market- based incentives). Political leaders, administrators, factory bosses, and many other members of the nomenklatura resisted reform, leading to infighting and instability. Mikhail Gorbachev – In 1985, Gorbachev becomes general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party and begins to carry out economic and political liberalization. Unlike his predecessors, Gorbachev recognized the stagnation of the Soviet system and understood that a new arms race would bankrupt his country. He thus proposed reforming both international and domestic relations, revitalizing both the Soviet Union and the communist thought. “New Foreign Policy” – In order to reduce the Soviet Union’s military burdens and improve relations with Western countries, Gorbachev began to loosen his country’s control over other communist states, particularly those in eastern Europe, which had been under the thumb of the Soviet Union since the end of World War II hoping that some limited liberalization in the region would ease tensions with Europe and the United States, enabling expanded trade and other economic ties. In 1989, opposition movements across Eastern Europe used Gorbachev’s new hands-off policy to attack their countries’ communist regimes, demanding open elections and an end to one-party rule. Eastern European communist party leaders, realizing that the Soviet Union would no longer intervene militarily to support them, had little choice but to acquiesce. Structural Adjustment - Structural adjustment is noted on the slide of why African authoritarian regimes made transitions to democracy in the early 1990’s and it is a category of the political economy. Government Spending: The Expense of Urban Bias, Interest Groups: Exporters and the “State” as class. Structural adjustment programs are policies of liberalization and have often required privatizing state- run firms, ending subsidies, reducing tariff barriers, shrinking the size of the state, and welcoming foreign investment. Opening up the economy and shrinking the state, liberals believe, will generate faster and more constant growth. Structural adjustment is one of the three paths to economic growth, also including import substitution and export-orientated industrialization.
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