Icebreakers Neg RKS Seniors - Icebreakers Neg Case...

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Icebreakers Neg
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Case Frontlines
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Arctic War
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1NC Arctic War No arctic war impact- our defense factors in their warrants and concludes cooperation will prevail Yalowitz 4/8 (Kenneth Yalowitz is Director of the Conflict Resolution Program at Georgetown University and a Global Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center, and was U.S. Ambassador to Belarus and Georgia. Vincent Gallucci is Professor, University of Washington, Jackson School of International Studies and School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, 2016, “Can the U.S. and Russia Avoid an Arctic Arms Race?”, ) The Arctic is currently experiencing major systemic changes as a result of climate change, which could produce greater international cooperation—or competition , and possibly conflict—among the states concerned. Both the United States and Russia have strong interests in keeping the Arctic an area of peaceful cooperation and the institutions and mechanisms exist to support that outcome . The key question is whether current geopolitical tensions will permit that to happen. The end of the Cold War led to a period of Arctic scientific and environmental cooperation largely conducted under the Arctic Council, a consensus-based body made up of eight Arctic states that include the United States and Russia, as well as permanent participants (representing indigenous peoples) and observer states. The region has been conflict- free, with states committed to diplomacy to resolve differences and abiding by the provisions of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Today, some argue that period has passed, as national interests begin to clash over boundaries, rich Arctic oil and gas resources, and fisheries. The most serious complication, however, comes from outside the region, with the tense geopolitical environment that has followed Russia’s annexation of Crimea and support of separatism in eastern Ukraine . The West has responded with economic sanctions including steps that directly affect the Arctic, namely prohibitions on assisting Russian oil and gas development. There has also been an increase in military activity in the Arctic, as both Russia and the United States have held large-scale maneuvers . President Obama’s call last fall for the construction of a new U.S. icebreaker to supplement its two Polar-class icebreakers, and to build additional Arctic-capable commercial vessels, was a signal that the United States sees new urgency to act in defense of its interests in the Arctic. The size and scale of Russia’s military activities in the Arctic are producing negative perceptions and growing suspicion in the West. Western authorities are monitoring Russia’s deployment of new weapons and air-defense systems, restoration of Soviet-era installations, development of new bases, and stationing of new ground forces to determine if there are offensive intentions.
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