iss neg - umich starter pack 2016 - kevin

iss neg - umich starter pack 2016 - kevin - OFFCASE SPACE...

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OFFCASE
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SPACE LEADERSHIP DA
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1NC SPACE LEADERSHIP DA Space arms race now --- America is winning through private sector innovation, information dominance, and “muscular defense” Harrison 4/29 [Roger Gran Harrison is a former director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies, “The Invisible Arms Race,” American Interest, April 29, 2016, - invisible-arms-race ] An arms race is under way in space—insidious, invisible, and at this point probably inevitable. The Bush Administration’s dream that the U nited S tates could control access to earth orbit as the British had once controlled s ea l ines o f c ommunication has been , as the bureaucrats say, overtaken by events . So has the Obama Administration’s emphasis on international “cooperation” (the word appears 13 times in the first few pages of the Administration’s 2010 National Space Policy document), an approach that served chiefly to demonstrate that no international consensus on the future of space exists, and that none is likely . Even the sensible, if vague and entirely voluntary, “Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities” floated by the E uropean U nion and pushed hard by the State Department for most of a decade found only tepid support. It was easy for the Chinese and Russians to portray it all as just the latest example of Western imperialism . Earlier this year, the Code was quietly put to rest. Leading from behind on space, the U nited S tates has been outmaneuvered and left for dead. Not so the Chinese and Russians, who occupy the diplomatic high ground with their Treaty on Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space (PPWT), all the time working feverishly to put their own weapons in space, and anywhere else they might do some damage, including, we can safely assume, in the cyber domain. Dean Cheng of the Heritage Foundation describes a recent reorganization of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) structure to emphasize “ information dominance ,” defined as the ability to exploit battlefield information while denying the enemy that same capability . The information satellites provide is key to power projection ; there can be no “pivot” to Asia without satellites ; so disabling or dismantling our space infrastructure is a high priority for Beijing . Kinetic hit-to-kill weapons like the one China tested in 2007 and again in recent years are one way of doing this, but hardly the most efficient . Far better in an “informationalized” war to ensure that the data satellites gather and transmit never makes it to the end user or that it arrives there in a form that looks reliable but isn’t. It’s the perfect way for a country like China to leap over the present imbalance and arrive as a fully fledged and dangerous adversary at the next stage of conflict in space. The key words on this new battlefield are hack, dazzle, jam, and spoof.
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