STWFinal key terms and study guide

STWFinal key terms and study guide - Cold War Escalation...

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Cold War Escalation – the increase in measures that eventually would lead to nuclear war if measures are not put in place to stop or slow escalation; during the cold war, these measures included installing a direct hotline between Moscow and DC and leaking information about countermeasures to prevent initial measures; Deterrence – the threat of an attack in order to prevent a first strike from an enemy; United States and Russia were building enormous nuclear stashes during the Cold War as deterrent for the other side launching a first strike, as second strike capabilities would be equal or greater; Offset Strategy – a US strategy after the end of the draft; goal to offset superior numerical advantages of opponents through an emphasis on technology; developed for European purposes only, as Russia had slack and a large nuclear arsenal; not a substitute with capital (more planes, tanks, etc.), but rather new technologies altogether; required a large organizational structure to institutionalize science and technology, with programs such as DARPA IDA: Institution of defense Analysis – created in 1947 to offer technical weapons systems research; operates for the government but not for specific military agencies; also does not work for private agencies DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency – an incredibly organized organization that created technologies and reported them directly to the military; created silent helicopter and internet, for example; most of the workforce comes in for one or two years to work on contract; needs links with all other organizations involved in order to be effective Precision Strike Technology – ability to land a bomb on a specific target; took much of the previous uncertainty out of attacks, as the military didn’t have to worry about peripheral damages and civilian casualties if the weapon missed, because they could hit such a small area and not affect surrounding areas; worked through GPS technologies; cuts down on exposure to enemy fire because military can target specific clusters of enemies GPS: Global positioning satellite – a clock in outer space that compares the times it
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STWFinal key terms and study guide - Cold War Escalation...

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