# physics1 - I. II. III. IV. V. Mechanics Light and Waves...

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I. Mechanics II. Light and Waves III. Electricity IV. Additional Topics V. Practice Problems Physics1.doc: I-II Physics2.doc: III-IV Physics3.doc: V Mechanics Basics: Section 1: Units The metric system of measurement is the standard in the world. The fundamental units include the second (s) for time, the meter (m) for length, and the kilogram (kg) for mass. You should know how to convert from one unit to another. 3600 seconds = 60 minutes = 1 hour 100 centimeters = 1 meter 1000 grams = 1 kilogram Section 2: Scientific Notation When expressing an extreme large number such as the mass of Earth, or a very small number such as the mass of an electron, scientists use the scientific notation . The basic format of scientific notation is M * 10 n , where M is any real numbers between 1 and 10 and n is a whole number. 10 0 = 1 10 1 = 10 10 2 = 10 * 10 = 100 10 3 = 10 * 10 * 10 = 1000 10 -1 = 1 / 10 = 0.1 10 -2 = 1 / 10 / 10 = 0.01

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10 -3 = 1 / 10 / 10 / 10 = 0.001 For example, the mass of Earth is about 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg and can be written as 6.0 * 10 24 kg. Also, the mass of an electron is 0.000000000000000000000000000000911 kg and can be expressed as 9.11 * 10 -31 kg. QUESTION: Express 8.213 * 10 2 in decimal number. QUESTION: Solve 4 * 10 2 + 3.2 * 10 3 . Section 3: Significant Digits The significant digits represent the valid digits of a number. The following rules summarize the significant digits: 1. Nonzero digits are always significant. 2. All final zeros after the decimal points are significant. 3. Zeros between two other significant digits are always significant. 4. Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are not significant. The table below is an example: values # of significant digits 5.6 2 0.012 2 0.0012003 5 0.0120 3 0.0012 2 5.60 3 In addition and subtraction, round up your answer to the least precise measurement. For example:
24.686 + 2.343 + 3.21 = 30.239 = 30.24 because 3.21 is the least precise measurement. In multiplication and division, round it up to the least number of significant digits. For example: 3.22 * 2.1 = 6.762 = 6.8 because 2.1 contains 2 significant digits. In a problem with the mixture of addition, subtraction, multiplication or division, round up your answer at the end, not in the middle of your calculation. For example: 3.6 * 0.3 + 2.1 = 1.08 + 2.1 = 3.18 = 3.2. QUESTION: Solve 5.123 + 2 + 0.00345 - 3.14. QUESTION: Solve -9.300 + 2.4 * 3.21. Section 4: Graph Three types of mathematical relationships are most common in physics. One of them is a linear relationship , which can be expressed by the equation y = mx + b where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Another relationship is the quadratic relationship . The equation is y = kx 2 , where k is a constant.

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The third equation is an inverse relationship , expressed by xy = k, where k is a constant. Section 5: Trigonometry
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## physics1 - I. II. III. IV. V. Mechanics Light and Waves...

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