organic_chemistry - This item is copyrighted, and was...

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This item is copyrighted, and was created by those from “theeseller555.” The only authorized seller of this item is theeseller555. For TONS of practice problems, please go to: http://www.cem.msu.edu/~parrill/ Functional Groups Chains and Rings Physical Properties Alkanes Alkenes, Alkynes Aromatic Alcohols, Ethers Amines Aldehydes Carboxylic Acids Polymers Spectroscopy Stereochemistry Reaction Mechanisms (Note: Please also consider the resources at: http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genobc/index.html ) Organic Compounds and Polymers Organic chemistry is the study of the properties of the compounds of carbon that are organic. All carbon compounds except for a few inorganic carbon compounds are organic. Inorganic carbon compounds include the oxides of carbon, the bicarbonates and carbonates of metal ions, the metal cyanides, and a few others. Intro: There are over six million organic compounds characterized, including the foods we eat, (made of carbohydrates, lipids,
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proteins, and vitamins), furs and feathers, hides and skins, and the organisms they came from. not to mention plastics, synthetic and natural fibers, dyes and drugs, insecticides and herbicides, ingredients in perfumes and flavoring agents, and petroleum products. The name organic chemistry came from the word organism. Prior to 1828, all organic compounds had been obtained from organisms or their remains. The belief then was that the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic compounds in the laboratory was impossible. All efforts had failed, and scientists became convinced that some "vital force" that living organisms had was necessary to make an organic compound. The synthesis of urea from inorganic substances in 1828 led to the disappearance of this vital force theory. The Uniqueness of Carbon The great number of carbon compounds is possible because of the ability of carbon to form stron covalent bonds to eath other while also holding the atoms of other nonmetals strongly. Chains of carbon atoms can be thousands of atoms long, as in polyethylene. Polyethylene chain: H H H H H H H H H H H | | | | | | | | | | | H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-etc. | | | | | | | | | | | H H H H H H H H H H H Isomers Isomerism is another reason why there are so many organic compounds. Isomers are compounds with identical molecular composition but their structures are arranged differently. Depending on how they are arranged, they may have similar or different properties. Because the number of carbons per molecule increases as the compound gets more complex, the number of possible isomers for any given formula becomes very, very large.
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Formula Number of Isomers C8H18 18 C10H22 75 C20H42 366,319 C40H82 6.25 x 1013 (approx.) Examples of isomers: H H H H | | | | H-C-C-C-C-H | | | | H H H H Butane H | H H-C-H H | | | H-C---C---C-H | | | H H H 2-methyl propane Butane and 2-methyl propane both have the molecular formula C4H10. H H
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course PCAT PCAT taught by Professor Unknown during the Fall '08 term at University of Washington.

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organic_chemistry - This item is copyrighted, and was...

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