ChemHL P3 M06 TZ0 - IB DIPLOMA PROGRAMME PROGRAMME DU...

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Unformatted text preview: IB DIPLOMA PROGRAMME PROGRAMME DU DIPLME DU BI PROGRAMA DEL DIPLOMA DEL BI M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX 22066103 CHEMISTRY HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 3 Friday 19 May 2006 (morning) 1 hour 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your session number in the boxes above. Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer all of the questions from two of the Options in the spaces provided. You may continue Candidate session number 0 0 your answers on answer sheets. Write your session number on each answer sheet, and attach them to this examination paper and your cover sheet using the tag provided. At the end of the examination, indicate the letters of the Options answered in the candidate box on your cover sheet and indicate the number of answer sheets used in the appropriate box on your cover sheet. 2206-6103 29 pages 0129 2 Option B Medicines and drugs B1. (a) Describe the likely effect of a depressant taken in: M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [1] a moderate dose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a high dose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Ethanol in breath can be detected using a breathalyser containing potassium dichromate(VI) crystals. Describe the colour change that occurs in a positive test and identify the species responsible for the final colour. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] 2206-6103 0229 3 B2. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] State the name of the class of drugs with effects similar to that of adrenaline. Outline one effect of these drugs on humans. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) (i) Identify the stimulant responsible for addiction to smoking tobacco. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] (ii) Describe two short-term effects of smoking tobacco. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] (iii) Describe two long-term effects of smoking tobacco, other than addiction. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 0329 4 B3. (a) State two differences between viruses and bacteria. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) Suggest how acyclovir acts as an antiviral drug. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (c) Describe two ways in which an antiviral drug can prevent the HIV virus from interacting with human cells. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] [2] 2206-6103 0429 5 B4. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [3] For each of the following anesthetics, state one disadvantage, different in each case, of its use. nitrous oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... ethoxyethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... halothane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... (b) An anesthetic mixture of gases is composed of nitrogen, oxygen and nitrous oxide. The gases are mixed in a 40 dm3 container where their partial pressures are 0.8 atm, 0.3 atm and 0.1 atm respectively, at a temperature of 20C. (i) Calculate the total pressure in the container. ................................................................. ................................................................. (ii) Calculate the mole fraction of oxygen gas present in the mixture. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] [1] 2206-6103 Turn over 0529 6 M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX B5. The manufacture of some drugs results in the formation of a racemic mixture. Explain why it is often preferable to use a method which does not form a racemic mixture, giving one example of such a drug and its effects. .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... [4] 2206-6103 0629 7 Option C Human biochemistry C1. (a) (i) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX Deduce the structure of one of the dipeptides that can be formed when the two aminoacids below react together. [2] (ii) State the name given to this type of reaction and identify the other product of the reaction. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] (b) Describe how a mixture of aminoacids can be analysed using electrophoresis. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [4] (c) (i) Explain what is meant by the primary structure of proteins. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] (ii) Explain, with reference to hydrogen bonding, why the -helix and -sheet secondary structures of proteins are different. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 0729 8 C2. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [1] The formula of oleic acid is CH 3 (CH 2 )7 CH = CH(CH 2 )7 COOH. Using R to represent CH 3 (CH 2 )7 CH = CH(CH 2 )7 , show the structure of the triglyceride formed from this acid. (b) Explain why some triglycerides that are liquid at room temperature become solids when they are completely hydrogenated. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [3] 2206-6103 0829 9 C3. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [4] Discuss the effect of a competitive inhibitor on an enzyme catalysed reaction. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) The effect of a competitive inhibitor on an enzyme catalysed reaction can be shown on the graph below. rate Vm substrate concentration Annotate the graph to show the position of K m for the reaction. Draw a line on the graph to represent the effect of competitive inhibition. [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 0929 10 M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX C4. The following drawing shows a section of a molecule of a nucleic acid. NH2 N N N O O P O O CH2 O NH2 OH NH N N O N N O O P O OH (a) (b) Identify the part of the nucleic acid that represents one nucleotide, by enclosing it within a ring and labelling it as "nucleotide". For a different nucleotide in the nucleic acid molecule, identify its three parts, by circling each one and labelling it with an appropriate name. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... O CH2 O [1] [3] 2206-6103 1029 11 Option D Environmental chemistry M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX D1. Global warming is thought to be partly caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Discuss the effects of global warming. .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... [3] D2. (a) (i) Only a small part of the Earth's supply of fresh water is used for domestic purposes. State the two main uses of fresh water. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] (ii) Identify the two locations that hold most of the Earth's water. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] (b) (i) Outline how ion exchange is used to obtain fresh water from sea water. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [4] (This question continues on the following page) 2206-6103 Turn over 1129 12 (Question D2 continued) (ii) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage of this method over simple distillation. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] (c) Explain what is meant by the term biological oxygen demand (BOD). Compare the values of BOD for water that is pure and water that contains organic waste. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [3] 2206-6103 1229 13 D3. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] Describe the main source of photochemical smog and of reducing smog. photochemical smog: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... reducing smog: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... (b) Describe the differences in the contents of the types of smog listed in (a). ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (c) Explain how the formation of thermal inversions may increase the effect of pollution. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 1329 14 D4. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] Compounds used in sunscreens contain a specific molecular feature. Identify this feature and describe how the compound interacts with sunlight. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) Identify the two substances below that are likely to be included in sunscreens. [2] ...................................................................... ...................................................................... 2206-6103 1429 15 Option E Chemical industries M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX E1. List three factors that should be taken into account before establishing a chemical industry in a particular location. .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... [2] E2. (a) State the raw materials needed to produce iron from iron ore in the blast furnace. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (b) (i) Explain why iron from the blast furnace is not as suitable as steel for making many objects. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] (ii) Outline how iron from the blast furnace is converted to steel. Include an equation in your answer. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] (This question continues on the following page) 2206-6103 Turn over 1529 16 (Question E2 continued) (c) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX Discuss the environmental impact of aluminium production. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [4] E3. (a) State the most important use of petroleum, other than as a fuel. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [1] (b) (i) Explain why crude oil contains sulfur. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] (ii) Explain why sulfur is removed from most petroleum products before use. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] 2206-6103 1629 17 E4. Chlorine and hydrogen are produced in a diaphragm cell. (a) State the raw material used in the diaphragm cell. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [1] ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) Write one equation for a reaction occurring at each electrode. negative electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... positive electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... (c) Identify the other product of the diaphragm cell and outline how it is formed. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 1729 18 M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX E5. Refer to Table 12 in the Data Booklet when answering this question. (a) Deduce the minimum temperature at which mercury can be obtained by spontaneous decomposition of its oxide, giving a reason for your choice. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) Chromium metal can be obtained from its oxide, Cr2 O3, by heating with a reducing agent. (i) Deduce the minimum temperature at which carbon can be used as the reducing agent. Deduce the equation for the reaction. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. (ii) Explain why carbon monoxide is not used as the reducing agent. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] [2] [2] 2206-6103 1829 19 Option F Fuels and energy F1. (a) State two desirable characteristics of energy sources. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) For each of the following energy sources, outline one reason why it is not widely used at present. (i) Nuclear fusion ................................................................. ................................................................. (ii) Tidal energy ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 1929 20 F2. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX A company is designing an automobile that is powered by photovoltaic cells instead of by the combustion of gasoline (petrol). Discuss three advantages and three disadvantages of using photovoltaic cells in this case. advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... [6] F3. (a) Identify the materials used for the electrodes in a lead-acid battery. ...................................................................... [1] (b) One reaction that occurs in a lead-acid battery involves the conversion of PbO 2 into PbSO4 . Write a half-equation for this reaction. Identify, giving a reason, whether this reaction occurs at the negative or positive electrode. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] 2206-6103 2029 21 F4. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [6] One method of storing energy is pumped storage. Outline this method and discuss it by referring to two advantages and two disadvantages. .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... F5. (a) Describe the characteristics of the high-level radioactive waste produced by a nuclear power plant. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (b) Describe how high-level radioactive waste can be stored. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (c) The radioactive isotope Pu-242 has a half-life of 3.8 105 years. Calculate the time for the activity of a sample of this isotope to decrease to 10 % of its orginal value. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] 2206-6103 Turn over 2129 22 Option G Modern analytical chemistry M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX G1. Identify one analytical technique, different in each case, that can be used to obtain the following information: Information Isotopic composition of an element Functional groups present in an organic compound Concentration of Fe3+ ions in industrial waste waters Analytical technique [3] G2. (a) The diagram below represents the principal parts of a double beam infrared spectrometer. A S M B C D (i) Name the parts labelled A, B, and C. A: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [2] (ii) Describe the function of the monochromator, M. ................................................................. ................................................................. [1] (This question continues on the following page) 2206-6103 2229 23 (Question G2 continued) (iii) Explain how the detector, D, works. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. (b) State and explain what happens to a molecule when it absorbs infrared radiation. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (This question continues on the following page) 2206-6103 Turn over 2329 24 (Question G2 continued) (c) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX Each of the infrared absorptions A, B and C is produced by one of the compounds I, II and III. Deduce which compound is responsible for each absorption, and identify the bond causing the absorption. [5] CH3 O CH2 CH3 C O wavenumbers in cm -1 3500 3300 3100 1800 1700 1600 1800 1700 1600 A Absorption A B C B Compound Bond C (d) Identify which of the absorptions, A, B or C, indicates the greatest amount of energy, giving a reason for you choice. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] 2206-6103 2429 25 G3. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX Chromatography is usually coupled with another analytical technique. Identify the analytical technique that is most commonly coupled with gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [1] (b) Chromatographic techniques include the following. LC (column chromatography) GLC (gas-liquid chromatography) HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) (i) Explain why LC is used in preference to GLC or HPLC to separate a pharmaceutical drug from its production batch. ................................................................. ................................................................. (ii) Identify, giving a reason which of the techniques GLC or HPLC is more suitable for determining the composition of a mixture of sugars. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2] [1] (This question continues on the following page) 2206-6103 Turn over 2529 26 (Question G3 continued) (c) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX Two samples of unknown alkaloids (X and Y) are analysed using paper chromatography. They are compared against the results obtained with samples of four known alkaloids A, B, C and D. The results are shown in the table below: A B Sample A B C D X Y C D X Y Rf value 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.1 and 0.3 0.5 [1] (i) Explain how an Rf .value is calculated. ................................................................. ................................................................. (ii) Use the results above to discuss the composition of samples X and Y. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. [3] 2206-6103 2629 27 Option H Further organic chemistry H1. Chlorine and ethane react together to form chloroethane. (a) State the condition needed for the reaction to occur. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [1] ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) Write equations to represent initiation, propagation and termination steps in the reaction. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (c) Discuss how the release of chlorinated alkanes at sea level can affect the levels of ozone in the upper atmosphere. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [3] [4] 2206-6103 Turn over 2729 28 H2. (a) Identify the reagents used in the nitration of benzene. M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX [2] ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (b) Write an equation or equations to show the formation of the species NO 2 + from these reagents. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... (c) Give the mechanism for the nitration of benzene. Use curly arrows to represent the movement of electron pairs. [2] [1] (d) Predict the structures of the products of the (mono) nitration of methylbenzene methylbenzene (two products) [3] nitrobenzene (one product) (e) Explain why the nitration of methylbenzene is faster than the nitration of benzene. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (f) Identify the reagent and catalyst used to convert benzene into methylbenzene. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] 2206-6103 2829 29 H3. Butan-2-ol can be converted to but-2-ene. (a) M06/4/CHEMI/HP3/ENG/TZ0/XX State the reagent used for this conversion and identify the type of reaction. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... [2] (b) Give the mechanism for the reaction. Use curly arrows to represent the movement of electron pairs. [3] 2206-6103 2929 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course CHEM 142,152,16 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at University of Washington.

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