Biodiversity Lecture Slides

Biodiversity Lecture Slides - ARE YOU A GOOD ANCESTOR? The...

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1 The Sixth Mass Extinction and Human Health Mark Oberle moberle@u.washington.edu http://sphcm.washington.edu/ November 29, 2007 ARE YOU A GOOD ANCESTOR? Photo: Norbert Rosing, NGS The Sixth Mass Extinction and Human Health z Biodiversity and human survival z Extinction --- the big picture z How did we get into this mess? z Looking ahead: respecting the 7 th Generation Baseline Status of Biological Diversity (Biodiversity) z 20 million+ species on Earth z 1 extinction per million years z 5 previous mass extinctions z Time to recovery = 20-30 million years INCREASE IN DIVERSITY First 5 Mass Extinction Events
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2 Cenozoic Era (Dinosaurs to Present Current (6 th ) Mass Extinction z Extinction rate >1000 times above ‘normal’ z 20% Extinct by 2100? z (20% bird species extinct in recent millenia) z (12% of Earth’s 10,000 bird species endangered) z Stage 1: Extinctions on isolated islands z Stage 2: Continental species extinctions CAUSES OF EXTINCTIONS z Habitat destruction / change z Invasive species z Disease z Pollution z Population / consumption balance z Overharvesting Dodo, Raphus cucullatus ) z Overharvesting Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius z Overharvesting z (Habitat change) © 2003 Population Reference Bureau A.D. 2000 A.D. 1000 A.D. 1 1000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 3000 B.C. 4000 B.C. 5000 B.C. 6000 B.C. 7000 B.C. 1+ mil ion years 8 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 Old Stone Age New Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age Middle Ages Modern Age Black Death —The Plague 9 10 11 12 A.D. 3000 A.D. 4000 A.D. 5000 1800 1900 1950 1975 2000 2100 Future Bilions World Population Growth Through History Source: Population Reference Bureau; and United Nations, World Population Projections to 2100 (1998).
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3 Population Structures, by Age and Sex, 2002 Millions 300 100 100 300 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 Less Developed Regions More Developed Regions Male Female Male Female 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 17-19 10-16 5-9 0-4 Age Age Distribution of the World’s Population Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision (medium scenario), 2003. Western Bluebird , Sialia mexicana z Invasive species Denny Granstrand , http://www.birdweb.org/birdweb/index.aspx European Starling , Sturnus vulgaris Photo: Mark Oberle RECENT BIRD EXTINCTIONS Atitlan Grebe, Podilymbus gigas z Habitat change z Introduced fish (bass) z Civil war Source: Science vol Photo: Jack Jeffries Ou , Psittirostra psittacea z Habitat loss z Malaria z Volcanic eruption Illustration: Doug Pratt
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4 Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus z Habitat Loss z Malaria z Cyclone Illustration: Doug Pratt Many natural ecosystems no longer exist From forests to grasslands, humanity has transformed habitats for its own use SUCCESS STORY: American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis SUCCESS STORY: Peregrine Falcon , Falco peregrinus Photo: Joel Volpi Why Save Biodiversity? z Economic: utilitarian value z Economic: ecosystem services z Scientific z Esthetic z Ethical Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea Photos.runic.com
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5 Rosy Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus RosyPeriwinkleFloridagardener-com.jpg Deforestation hotspots ( Agriculture & forestry practices > 30% of Anthropogenic GHG) Sources: THE NATURE CONSERVANCY AND HANSEN AND DEFRIES, 2004; cited
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course ENVL 111 taught by Professor Unknown during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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Biodiversity Lecture Slides - ARE YOU A GOOD ANCESTOR? The...

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