Air Pollution Lecture Slides

Air Pollution Lecture Slides - Air Pollution Sverre Vedal,...

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Air Pollution Sverre Vedal, MD Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences , Program in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Washington week of October 23, 2007 Air Pollution: readings 1. Miller KA et al . New Engl J Med 2007 2. Herald Tribune article on air pollution and exercise 3. National Post article airing opposing views on how many people die from air pollution 4. AP article on an experimental study of diesel in patients with coronary disease Air Pollution: who’s involved? Research epidemiologists toxicologists exposure scientists & engineers statisticians economists Policy/enforcement govt. agency employees engineers & monitoring technicians legislators economists •l a w y e r s Air Quality Index (AQI) 32 PM 2.5 10 AQI 45 PM 2.5 14 AQI 72 PM 2.5 26
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AQI 70 PM 2.5 25 Air pollution topics this week • terminology • specific air pollutants – sources – concentrations – effects • health •“we l fa re – control and regulation Sources of air pollution I • “natural” – biogenic – dust • industrial (“point” sources) • vehicular (mobile sources) – on-road • gasoline • diesel – non-road • marine • heavy equipment • aircraft Sources of air pollution II • stationary (“area” sources) – indoor woodburning – outdoor burning – road dust concept : primary vs. secondary pollutants ozone (O 3 ) fine particles – nitrates, sulfates Air pollution terminology I EPA “criteria” air pollutants 1. particulate matter (PM x ) 2. ozone (O 3 ) 3. sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) 4. nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) 5. carbon monoxide (CO) 6. lead (Pb) largest diameter (μm) Air pollution terminology II “hazardous air pollutants ” (HAPS): harmful air pollutants other than criteria pollutants –n = 1 8 8 related to “air toxics” e.g., benzene, VOCs, diesel exhaust “smog”
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0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 PM2.5 NOx SO2 CO VOCs biogenic stationary off-road on-road point Puget Sound pollutant emissions (in thousands of tons): by pollutant Note: amount of emissions ¡ amount of health or other impacts respiratory tract from a deposition perspective: extrathoracic (nasopharyngeal) - nose -mouth - oropharynx - larynx tracheo-bronchial - trachea - bronchi - terminal bronchioles alveolar (pulmonary) - respiratory bronchioles - alveolar ducts - alveoli Heyder J. Proc Am Thorac Soc, 2004 1. particles larger than 10 P m in diameter are not inhaled. 2. particles in the largest and smallest parts of the inhalable range are deposited best, especially in the alveoli. Particle size terminology Two particle size modes differ by composition and source
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Puget Sound sources of PM2.5 point 3% on-road 7% off-road 13% stationary 77% biogenic 0% point 3% on-road 7% off-road 13% stationary 77% biogenic 0% point 3% on-road gasoline 3% on-road diesel 3% marine 7% of -road vehicles 7% aircraft 1% outdoor burning 33% indoor woodburning 13% other stationary 30% biogenic 0% Details of PM 2.5 sources in Puget Sound 1. The wood burning contribution to PM is not unique to the Northwest.
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course ENVL 111 taught by Professor Unknown during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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Air Pollution Lecture Slides - Air Pollution Sverre Vedal,...

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