Anthro_Webnotes - Web reading Pgs 75-113 Access to female...

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Web reading Pgs. 75-113 Access to female - In large herd animals (horses, bison, etc) females graze well and defend themselves well o No need for males males instead spend time/energy competing for access to females female defense polygyny : fighting among males to aggressively maintain female groups in defendable herds - elephant seals exhibit extreme version of defendable territory (large # of sexually receptive females densely located in common area) o = extreme examples of competition (territory defense + female defense coincide) Only a few males succeed, others die, but still from evolutionary persp. = good Intense level of sexual competition sexual dimorphism Ex: varying physical features in males compared to females (size, coloration) o Male seals compete for # of matings not quality of mates to prevent other males from entering territory Females more discriminating but through choosing calving site (indirect) which leads to healthiest, most aggressive males make babies like their fathers Male display: risks and handicaps - Males have special means for displaying themselves as asset (usually genetic value) o In form of visible, elaborate decoration or exotic behavior Ex: peacock tails in males o But Darwin suggestions about ^ not convincing because he saw the species as having aesthetic appreciation - Ahmat Zahavi saw the displays as being kind of a handicap o More elaborate,delicate the display = more easily damaged = more likely to highlight flaws harder to hide and perhaps impede on locomotion Escape from predators difficult Also a big show = attract predators This means that those who are left and still make big display after others are killed off = best specimens Ex: male birds with long tails have more reproduction than those with shorter but also are targeted more by predators = counterbalance reproductive advantage = explains the av. Length of tail in these birds Males on stage: the lek - Leks are open areas that males display their competiveness at o Usually most advantageous to be at the center of area than perimeter to attract others o Chickens, pheasants, grouse - Males strut around this area hoping for females to come copulate, but is also “inviting”
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2008 for the course ANTHRO 1 taught by Professor Wilkie during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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Anthro_Webnotes - Web reading Pgs 75-113 Access to female...

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