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CHAPTER 3: RISE OF THE GENUS HOMO Defining the Genus Homo o Brain size greater than 500 cc, smaller less prognathic face, smaller teeth than australopithecines o We can no longer consider Homo to be associated with stone tool making unique to them because there has been evidence of Australopithecus garhi doing it too o Homo vs. Australopithecines Larger more rounded braincase, smaller less projecting face, smaller teeth, larger body and more efficient bipedelism Earliest Genus Homo o Some researchers believe earlier Homos like Homo habilis should be lumped with Australopithecus because so apelike Homo should be reserved for bigger brains longer limbed o Earliest H. Erectus also called H. ergaster because of small brain + body size Appeared in E. Africa and Republic of Georgia 1.8mya o Asian H. erectus vs. African H. erectus Thicker walled crania, more robust facial features, larger teeth and more cranial superstructures o Key anatomical features of homo habilis Reduced facial size, parabolic palate and some brain enlargement Early Tool Use o Used both oldowan and acheulean tools; but may have been hominid that made them o Oldowan: Tool industry characterized by simple core and flake tools Tools made with either hammerstone or anvil technique Simple in appearance, can’t really tell if was tool or naturally made o Tool industry : Style/tradition of making stone tools o Core : raw material source from which flakes removed o Flake : stone fragment from core Primary tools of oldowan o Hammerstone : Stone used for striking cores to make flakes or bones to expose marrow o Butchering site : Place where its evidently used to butcher carcasses Evidence: tool cut marks on fossilized bones of animals + tools themselves o Quarrying sites : Where hominids went to obtain raw material to make stone tools o Home base : Area where early hominids brought their tools and carcasses around; centered activities around here Hunting and Scavenging o Early homo used stone tools to obtain meat and marrow o 3 main models for how early hominids acquired carcasses Hunting Confrontational scavenging (fight of large predators to gain access to meat) Passive scavenging (Take whatevers left from decomposing hunk of meat) On some occasions, homonids were scavengers rather than hunters o Homo habilis acquired resources in any form they could ^ Who was Homo erectus? o Was the first hominid to leave Africa Dispersal was result of multiple movements from small groups of hominids into new territories
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o Anatomical Features The Skull and Teeth Supraorbital torus : thickened ridge bone above eye orbitals (browridge) Angular torus : Thickened ridge of bone at posterial angle of parietal (back side of skull) Occipital torus : Thickened horizontal ridge on occipital near rear of cranium (back bottom of skull) Sagittal keel : ridge of bone on sagittal suture not associ. With muscle attachment (near sagital ridge area)
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