ATOC 1050 chapter 6 notes

ATOC 1050 chapter 6 notes - Chapter 6 Forces and Force...

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Chapter 6 – Forces and Force Balances ATOC 1050 I. Why does air move? A. Temperature differences = density differences = pressure differences = air moving from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. B. What forces are involved? What is a “force” Force = mass x acceleration [acceleration is a vector quantity which is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity (both speed and direction)] 1. Pressure gradient force or PGF a. Recall that a gradient is a change in a quantity over a distance. b. The rate at which air will accelerate depends on rate at which pressure changes with distance which is the pressure gradient. 1

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c. The force applied to a small parcel of air due to pressure differences is the pressure gradient force. d. Graphically, the closer together the isobars (lines of constant pressure), the stronger the pressure gradient force and the stronger the wind. For example, the arrows on this diagram show the direction and strength of the PGF. (“Superstorm” or “Storm of the Century”, March 14, 1993, pg. 104 in text). 2
F g = -Gm 1 m 2 /r 2 Where: G = Gravitational constant = 6.6732x10 -11 nt-m 2 /kg 2 m 1 = mass of first object m 2 = mass of second object e = distance between two masses Gravity holds the atmosphere to the Earth. The force of gravity is directionally proportional to the mass of the 2 objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Because

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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2008 for the course ATOC 1050 taught by Professor Forrest,be during the Spring '06 term at Colorado.

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ATOC 1050 chapter 6 notes - Chapter 6 Forces and Force...

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