Anthro 3700 Study Guide Exam #2 - Malinowski Argonauts...

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Malinowski Argonauts: readable, interesting Participant observation: moving down off the veranda, moving down to live with locals on their own terms Kula Ring: emphasis on prestige, seeing what the kula themselves cannot see – larger ring Functionalism: relationships, culture driven by purpose; utility = give opportunity for people to get their needs fulfilled Culture: system for providing humans practical needs ( phys, bio, social), culture becomes a tool/extension of mental ability to work out practical affairs; enables society to run but comes down to individual needs; now individuals pursue their own ends within the constraints of culture Structure: stipulates possibilities, pursuit of own ends within constraint of culture Psychological Functionalism Radcliffe-Brown Agenda: produce a science of society, understand solidarity Structural Functionalism: social laws from comparative studies Diachronic analysis: based on changes, evolutionary prospective Synchronic analysis: looking at given moment in time, slice of time, no regard for change or history Social Functionalism: how society works, social facts System of Sentiments = trained sentiments; sentiments not innate but created in the interests of society; ceremonial custom – expressing sentiments, also to train people; social function = effects of custom/institution, trained emotional dispositions make society work Like Boas was influenced by Durkheim Andaman Islanders = example of mechanical solidarity (solidarity of thinking alike) Survivals – RB thinks survivals are interesting because of function they have in the present; in effect, not really a survival; contemporary – don’t have to look at them historically Social Value = way and degree to which something maintains solidarity Mothers Brother in Bathonga in S. Africa – studying acephalous societies helped explain what works to maintain social order; extensions of relationships with mother and father- respect father and mother trains how to relate; principle: equivalence of siblings; behavior regulated according to social rules represented by different kinship relations – system regulated by everyone learning the rules; sentimental relationship – critical determinant of social behavior, ritual = sentimental education Social person = acquires the skills needed to fulfill his role in society Social Function = effects of a custom/institution, how it keeps societies together Evans-Pritchard
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Unlike RB, EP considered environment, focus on specific cults (not so much developing general theory) EP reintroduced history back into RB’s analysis – not synchronic Nuer-feuding = dimension of social system, maintaining order, settles differences Segmentary Lineage – massing effect based on kinship relations, no mechanism for dealing with outside, closer relation = more social obligation Primitive Law: order maintained by kinship systems
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