CHEN 1000 Biotech Lecture 5 Notes

CHEN 1000 Biotech Lecture 5 Notes - Clicker Question...

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1 Commercialized Biotechnology Commercialized Biotechnology Which of the following would probably be the LEAST EFFECTIVE treatment for a person with a defective gene that results in a missing protein? A: produce the missing protein in E. coli and use as a drug to treat the person. B: insert the corrected gene into E. coli bacteria and inject the bacteria into the person’s food. C: introduce the corrected gene into human cells and insert into the correct tissue in a person. Clicker Question Factory Cells Used to Produce Pharmaceuticals •Bacteria such as E. coli •Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisia, the first eukaryotic organism whose genome was completely sequenced. •Mammalian cells like Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells Bacterial production of recombinant proteins is the least expensive method, but some human proteins don’t fold correctly in a bacterial environment; a eukaryote is necessary. figure 17-13.jpg (c) Conjugation: bacterial mating Recombinant Pharmaceuticals • Many therapeutic agents are human proteins. • Prior to genetic engineering these were separated from donor or animal blood and were expensive and had limited availability. • Recombinant DNA biotechnology makes it possible for these proteins to be mass produced by microorganisms. Some recombinant protein pharmaceuticals: Compound Disorder 2005 Sales ($billion) epoetin (Procrit, etc.) disease-related anemia 11 interferon hepatitis, MS 6.5 Enbrel, etc. (mAb) rheumatoid arthritis 8.5 Rituxan (mAb) leukemia/lymphoma 3.1 Avastin, etc. colorectal cancer 1.6 insulin diabetes 2.5 FDA Approval 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year # Pharmaceuticals Number of new recombinant pharmaceuticals approved by year: Typically takes 10-15 years for FDA approval insulin
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2 Case Study: Interferons Interferons are naturally-occurring human proteins. They are strong anti-viral and anti-cancer drugs used to treat hepatitis, leukemia, bladder cancer, head & neck cancer, melanoma, myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Crohn disease, HIV, papilloma virus, herpes, multiple sclerosis, renal cell carcinoma, etc. Produced in E. coli by Genentech, Eli Lilly, Hoffman-La Roche, Schering Plough, etc.
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CHEN 1000 Biotech Lecture 5 Notes - Clicker Question...

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