Ch 51 Notes - pg 1003-1014 pop ecol Chapter 51 Introduction...

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pg 1003-1014 pop ecol. Chapter 51 Introduction to Ecology: Population Ecology ecology - the study of how living organisms and the physical environment interact in an immense and complicated web of relationships; broadest field of biology. biotic factors -interactions between organisms abiotic factors - those between organism and their nonliving, physical environment, ; include precipitation, pH, chemical nutrients, wind environmental science- a scientific discipline with ties to ecology, focuses on how humans interact with the environment population - a group consisting of members of the same species that live together in a prescribed area at the same time. FEATURES OF POPULATIONS 1. define population density and dispersion, and describe the main types of population dispersion -Characteristics of populations are population density, population dispersion, birth and death rates, growth rates, survivorship, and age structure. population ecology -considers both the number of individuals of a particular species that are found in an area and the dynamics of the population population dynamics -the study of changes in population-how and why those numbers increase or decrease over time. Density and dispersion are important features of populations population density -is the number of individuals of a species per unity of area or volume at a given time dispersion -populations often exhibits characteristic patterns of dispersion or SPACING. come in clumped; uniform, or random dispersion clumped dispersion - aka aggregated distribution or aka patchiness; is most common spacing; occurs when indivudauls are concentrated in specific parts of habitat. ; often results from clumped natural resources, and other reasons such as asexual reproduction, limited seed dispersal, and social reasons; advantage is less likely hood to be eaten by predator uniform dispersion -occurs when individuals are more evenly spaced than would be expected from a random occupation of a given habitat. ex: nesting birds evenly spaced out on land due to TERRITORY; also occurs when competition severe random dispersion -occurs when individuals in a population are spaced throughout an area in a manner that is unrelated to the presence of others. ; least common; ex: flour beetle larvae in flour; *Sand pines are fire adapted. At first are uniform due to competing for sunlight; next when fire occurs, they release seeds, then after, they
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are either random or slightly clumped; then become uniform again due to competition Review -What is the difference between population density and dispersion? -What are some biological advantages of a clumped dispersion? What are some disadvantages? CHANGES IN POPULATION SIZE 2. explain the four factors (natality, mortality, immigration, and emigration) that produce changes in population 3. define intrinsic rate of increase and carrying capacity, and explain the difference between J-shaped and S-shaped growth curves. *on global scale population change is caused by two factors
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Ch 51 Notes - pg 1003-1014 pop ecol Chapter 51 Introduction...

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