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Unformatted text preview: Evolutionary Change in Populations Chapter 18 (micro) 353-361 *change in structure, physiology, ecology, and behavior is inherited from one generation to the next and EVOLution DOES NOT happen to the specific individual. population-consists of all the individuals of the same species that live in a particular place at the same time. allele- is one of two or more alternate forms of a gene. loci-(alleles occupy) corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes population genetics- the study of genetic variability within a population and of the forces that act on it. *distinguish between genetic equilibrium from evolutionary change; *five factors for evolutionary change: nonrandom mating, mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection GENOTYPE, PHEOTYPE, AND ALLELE FREQUENCIES 1. define what is meant by a populations gene pool 2. distinguish among genotype, phenotype, and allele frequencies gene pool- include all the alleles for all the loci present in the population.; since diploid individual has maximum of 2 alleles per locus, individual has small fraction of gene pool below are questions that will be asked and will require math. look at pg 354 for review genotype frequency-is the proportion of a particular genotype in the population; is expressed in decimal fractions phenotype frequency - is the proportion of a particular phenotype in the population., allele frequency- is the proportion of a specific allele (ie., A or a) in a particular population; if all members of population have same allele of given locus, then allele frequency is 1. Review-Does the term gene pool apply to individuals, populations or both?-Can the frequency of all genotypes in a population be determined directly with respect to a locus that has only two alleles, one dominant and the other recessive?-In a human population of 1000, 840 are tongue rollers (TT or Tt), and 160 are not tongue rollers (tt). What is the frequency of the dominant allele (T) in the population? THE HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE 3. Discuss the significance of the Hardy-Weinberg principle as it relates to evolution, and list the five conditions required for genetic equilibrium. 4. use the Hardy-Weinberg principle to solve problems involving populations *frequency alleles and genotypes do not change from generation to generation genetic equilibrium- a population whose allele and genotype frequencies do not change from generation to generation; Thus are not evolving!...
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