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Middle East History I Midterm Review Themes, Empires Etc… Empires/Dynasties: Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) o Damascus: Refers to Uthman’s kinsmen who were the dynastic rulers of the Arab empire from 661 until 750 Numerous conquests led to an influx of revenue which was used for the construction of palaces, mosques etc… Umayyad officials attempted to centralize and consolidate power but physical and cultural distance allowed local practices to continue Multi-religious society: dhimmis Empire extended from South Asia to Western Europe (map) Abd al-Malik (685-705) Arabization and Islamization Dissolution caused by financial and social problems Berber Revolts Tribal Favoritism o Cordoba: (7 711: Muslim conquest of Iberian Peninsula Abd al-Raman , an Umayyad prince escaped to Egypt and eventually resurrected the Umayyad dynasty Convivencia Abd al-Raman III proclaims himself caliph in 929 Reconquista: Christian states retook Iberian peninsula 1009-1031: civil war Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) o Abbasids victorious over Umayyads in 750 o Major Islamic institutions and doctrines formed o Patronage of arts and sciences cultural efflorescence o Abu al-Abbas o al-Mansur founded Baghdad o Harun al-Rashid o al-Ma’mun o Military and Economic problems mamluks o Assertion of regional autonomy Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171) o Rival caliphate established by Isma’ili sect of Shi’ites
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o 910: seized power in Ifriqiya o Ruled over regions in Northern Africa o 922: capture of Fez o At its height, directly controlled Libya, Egypt, Palestine and the upper Red Sea Coast o Fatimid Egypt: Cairo became flourishing city, threat to Sunni rivals o Adopted ceremonies of ashura and ghadir khumm from Buyids o Christians and Jews enjoy relative religious freedom o al-Hakim (996-1021) Religious intolerance o 1094: schism within Fatimid empire Nizaris Buyids (932-1062) o 932: Buyid brothers win control of province of Fars o 945: Takeover of Baghdad o Ruled their provinces as a confederation o Acknowledged spiritual authority of caliph o First generation were Zaydi Shi’its but later were sympathetic to twelver Shi’ism o Did not force subjects to convert to Shi’ism but Sunni Abbasid caliph was reduced to figurehead status o 972-975: Civil War o Middle of 11 th century: threats from Byzantines, Bedouin, and Turks Ghaznavid State (961- o Mahmud of Ghazna famous for his military campaigns, especially raids into India intimidating army o The Book of Kings: important literary work o Secured power in modern Afghanistan o 1028: Mahmud of Ghazna defeats band of Seljuks raiding along the Amu Darya Great Seljuks (1038-1194) o Most famous of the Oghuz clans o Entered Transoxiana in the 980s when Samanids requested their assistance against Turkish invaders o 1035: Brothers Chaghri and
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course HIST 160 taught by Professor Agoston during the Spring '08 term at Georgetown.

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More Midterm Review - Middle East History I Midterm Review...

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