L- The Mamluks of Egypt and Syria

L- The Mamluks of Egypt and Syria - L: The Mamluks of Egypt...

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L: The Mamluks of Egypt and Syria 10/2/07 Introduction Shift of Islamic central of power from Iraq and Iran to Egypt and Syria o Decline of Seljuks o Mongol invasion o Crusades Unique System of Government and Military o Empire ruled by slave dynasty (1250-1517) Mamluks survive Ottoman rule o Resurface in 17 th century- local strongmen play important role in Egypt until Muhammad Ali Geopolitics: Islam Divided Seljuks o 1040: enter Baghdad o 1055: o celebrated as saviors of Sunni Abbasid caliphate from Shi’a Abuyids o Seljuk sultanate reach its zenith in 1070s, generation after they took Baghdad o Victory at Manzikert over Byzantine empire o 1071: turning point- opens gate of Asia minor ***know this date o Asia minor, previously mainly Christian and Greek speaking, become largely Turkish speaking and Muslim o Malik Shah- takes Syria and Palestine from Fatimids o After his death, civil war breaks out o Seljuks of Rome most important o ***Important Dates 1071: opening of Asia Minor 1243: Rum Seljuks defeated by Mongols creates power vacuum in Asia minor Ottoman principality emerges around 1300- later becomes Ottoman empire Fatimids o shift from Shi’a to Sunni o continuity from Fatimid era to Mamluk era o dynasty named after Fatima o creation of this dynasty divided Islam o Shi’a propaganda o At one point controlled part of greater Syria o Under the Fatimids, Cairo becomes flourishing city o Cairo- Shi’a capital (all new dynasties establish new capital, i.e. Baghdad, Damascus etc…) o Interethnic/Interreligious relations
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Christians and Jews enjoyed large freedoms Except for under al-Hakim (?) Persecution of Christians “People of the book” treated fairly Christians and Jews enjoyed high offices Viziers- many of Christian or Jewish origin
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course HIST 160 taught by Professor Agoston during the Spring '08 term at Georgetown.

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L- The Mamluks of Egypt and Syria - L: The Mamluks of Egypt...

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