History Final Review1

History Final Review1 - History Final Review Rise of the...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
History Final Review Rise of the Ottomans (reasons, context, methods) Imber, The Ottoman Empire Ch. 1 o 1071: Battle of Manzikert Seljuks defeat Byzantines Collapse of Byzantine rule in the region Appear of Muslim region- encourages Turkish migration o 13 th century 1204: Fourth Crusade Fragmentation of Byzantine territory Fragmentation of Balkan territories: later exploited by Ottoman conquerors 1243: Mongols defeat Seljuks Turks migrate to Byzantine lands in Anatolia o Weakening of Ilkhanid control over Anatolia- local leaders gain power as independent rulers Seljuk and Ilkhanid Anatolia Fragments into different principalities o Change in ethnicity from primarily Greek to primarily Turkish o “Strongly Turkish and tentatively Islamic” (8) o As empire expanded it became increasingly multinational o Osman No large towns o Orhan , 1324-1362 Principality acquired more settled aspect Exploited civil war in Byzantium between rival emperors By his death, included lands in both Asia and Europe, cities and rural settlements Religious establishments- distinguished state as a Muslim polity o Murad I , 1362-89 Realms in Anatolia and in Europe began to expand rapidly Gains control of trade route- enhanced treasury Conquests in Europe 1369: occupation of Edirne- strategic position “From then on the Muslims began to overrun the empire of the Christians” (11) Hourani: o Prior to Ottoman Empire (p212 10 th and 11 th century: Long period of “dislocation” Brief period of stability in 13 th century Black Death
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Decline of rural people and livestock= decline in agricultural production= decline in government resources Expansion of European navigation in Mediterranean- more difficult for Muslim government to obtain resources Changes in the arts of war, shipbuilding, navigation, new use of gunpowder **Changed circumstances: challenges to Mamluk state and other Muslim states o Ottoman state was one of the Turkish principalities that came into being because of the expansion of the Saljuqs and Turkish immigrants westawards into Anatolia o Osman founded a principality in northwest Anatolia- main point of contact with the Byzantines o Geographical factors Productive agricultural lands Market towns- mportant points on trade routes from Iran and Asia to the Medterranean o Resources increased o New weapons and techniques creation of organized army o Expanded into Eastern Europe at end of 14 th century Came into contact with European states New manpower- incorporated former ruling groups into its system of government Conscription o Defeated by Timur o 1453: Took Constantinople as its new capital o Naval Power o ***Origin similar to that of the Safavids of Iran and Mughals in India (215) Challenge to established dynasties by a military force drawn from largely nomadic peoples Military success due to gunpowder weapons
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course HIST 160 taught by Professor Agoston during the Spring '08 term at Georgetown.

Page1 / 9

History Final Review1 - History Final Review Rise of the...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online