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History Final Review1

History Final Review1 - History Final Review Rise of the...

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History Final Review Rise of the Ottomans (reasons, context, methods) Imber, The Ottoman Empire Ch. 1 o 1071: Battle of Manzikert Seljuks defeat Byzantines Collapse of Byzantine rule in the region Appear of Muslim region- encourages Turkish migration o 13 th century 1204: Fourth Crusade Fragmentation of Byzantine territory Fragmentation of Balkan territories: later exploited by Ottoman conquerors 1243: Mongols defeat Seljuks Turks migrate to Byzantine lands in Anatolia o Weakening of Ilkhanid control over Anatolia- local leaders gain power as independent rulers Seljuk and Ilkhanid Anatolia Fragments into different principalities o Change in ethnicity from primarily Greek to primarily Turkish o “Strongly Turkish and tentatively Islamic” (8) o As empire expanded it became increasingly multinational o Osman No large towns o Orhan , 1324-1362 Principality acquired more settled aspect Exploited civil war in Byzantium between rival emperors By his death, included lands in both Asia and Europe, cities and rural settlements Religious establishments- distinguished state as a Muslim polity o Murad I , 1362-89 Realms in Anatolia and in Europe began to expand rapidly Gains control of trade route- enhanced treasury Conquests in Europe 1369: occupation of Edirne- strategic position “From then on the Muslims began to overrun the empire of the Christians” (11) Hourani: o Prior to Ottoman Empire (p212 10 th and 11 th century: Long period of “dislocation” Brief period of stability in 13 th century Black Death
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Decline of rural people and livestock= decline in agricultural production= decline in government resources Expansion of European navigation in Mediterranean- more difficult for Muslim government to obtain resources Changes in the arts of war, shipbuilding, navigation, new use of gunpowder **Changed circumstances: challenges to Mamluk state and other Muslim states o Ottoman state was one of the Turkish principalities that came into being because of the expansion of the Saljuqs and Turkish immigrants westawards into Anatolia o Osman founded a principality in northwest Anatolia- main point of contact with the Byzantines o Geographical factors Productive agricultural lands Market towns- mportant points on trade routes from Iran and Asia to the Medterranean o Resources increased o New weapons and techniques creation of organized army o Expanded into Eastern Europe at end of 14 th century Came into contact with European states New manpower- incorporated former ruling groups into its system of government Conscription o Defeated by Timur o 1453: Took Constantinople as its new capital o Naval Power o ***Origin similar to that of the Safavids of Iran and Mughals in India (215) Challenge to established dynasties by a military force drawn from largely nomadic peoples Military success due to gunpowder weapons Created stable, lasting policies
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