POLI100 Exam Review

POLI100 Exam Review - POLI100 Exam Review Chapter 1: Key...

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POLI100 Exam Review Chapter 1: Key Terms: 1. Agency loss: The discrepancy between what citizens ideally would like their agent to do and how the agents actually behave; The difference between what the people want and what they get from their politicians 2. Agent: someone who makes and implements decisions on behalf of someone else; a person who is put in charge of doing a duty for a person which they cannot do for themselves 3. Authority: the right to make and implement a decision 4. Bargaining: a form of negotiation in which two or more parties who disagree propose exchanges and concessions to find a course of acceptable collective action: when a group gets together and figure out how they can work together and compromise to get the best possible course of action 5. Cabinet: the formal group of presidential advisers who head the major departments and agencies of the federal government. Cabinet members are chosen by the president and approved by the senate; senate and presidential approved candidates chosen to head the departments and advise the president. 6. Coalition: an alliance of unlike-minded individuals or groups to achieve some common purpose such as lobbying, legislating, or campaigning for the election of public officials 7. Collective action: an action taken by a group of like-minded individuals to achieve a common goal 8. Collective goods: goods that are collectively produced and freely available for anyone’s consumption 9. Compromise: settlement in which each side concedes some of its preference in order to secure others 10. Conformity costs: the difference between what a person would ideally prefer and what the group in which the person makes collective decisions actually does. 11. Constitution: a document outlining the formal rules and institutions of its government and the limits placed on its powers. 12. Coordination: the act of organizing a group to achieve a common foal. Coordination remains a prerequisite for effective collection action even after the disincentives to individual participation have been solved. 13. Delegation: the act of one person or body authorizing another person to perform an action on their behalf.
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14. Direct democracy: a system of government in which citizens make policy decisions by voting on legislation themselves rather than by delegating that authority to their representatives. 15. Externalities: public goods or bads generated as a byproduct of private activity. For example, air pollution is an externality (public bad) because it is, in part, the byproduct of the private activity of driving a car. 16. Focal point: focus identified by participants when coordinating their energies to achieve a common purpose 17. Free-rider problem: a situation in which individuals can receive the benefits from a collective activity whether or not they helped to pay for it, leaving them with no incentive to contribute 18. Government: the institutions and procedures through which people are ruled.
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POLI100 Exam Review - POLI100 Exam Review Chapter 1: Key...

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