Phil102 Ch2 notes

Phil102 Ch2 notes - CHAPTER 2 IDENTIFYING ARGUMENTS -Look...

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IDENTIFYING ARGUMENTS -Look at 2.1 on uses of statements that may be confused with giving an argument (Notice: conditional statements are typically not arguments. However, sometimes a complex conditional can contain an argument. Compare: “If you love me then you will make me pancakes” [not an argument], “IF If you love me then you will make me pancakes, and you do love me, THEN you will make me pancakes.” [this is an argument] *Arguments vs. Explanations What is an explanation? The citing of facts (typically causes) for something already accepted. Note: an argument is the giving of reasons for something not yet accepted. 2.2 “Well-Crafted arguments” Arguments in English are often not stated directly and precisely. Reconstructing arguments in such a way as to reveal their important logical features is one important skill to learn. When an argument is stated clearly, let’s call it a well-crafted argument (often this is called “putting the argument in standard form”) Principle 1: Identify the premises and the conclusion -Recall that each step in an argument must be a complete statement -Premises (or reasons) are often indicated in English by various words or phrases such as “because”, “since”, “for the fact that…”, “for”, etc. -Conclusions are also often indicated in English by various other words or phrases such as “so”, “therefore”, “thus”, “it follows that…”, “consequently”, etc. -Look for the occurrence of these words when identifying arguments. (Note: Often in English arguments are presented without accompanying premise or conclusion indicating words or phrases. In such cases you must rely on your understanding of English to guide you.) -Once you identify the premises and the conclusion of an argument list them on numbered lines beginning with the premises and ending with the conclusion, marking the conclusion with “So” immediately preceding the conclusion line. 1.
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course PHIL 102 taught by Professor Epperson during the Fall '07 term at Western Washington.

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Phil102 Ch2 notes - CHAPTER 2 IDENTIFYING ARGUMENTS -Look...

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