101Sensation_Perception_Outline_Spr08

101Sensation_Perception_Outline_Spr08 - SENSATION...

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SENSATION & PERCEPTION – LECTURE OUTLINE I.  SENSATION VS. PERCEPTION A.  SENSATION:   Stimulus detection process; relatively “passive” Sense organs are stimulated & stimulation is transformed  (“transduced”) into electrochemical signals in the brain. B. PERCEPTION:   Active creative process of selecting & organizing stimuli  & giving them meaning. Relate info to past experiences. II.  SENSORY PROCESSES A. SUBLIMINAL STIMULI  – Stimulation of sense organs “below the level of  awareness” Vicary’s hoax:   1. RESULTS OF STUDIES     :   Subliminal stimuli  may  influence attitudes and preferences, but not  behaviors. Krosnick’s study – exposed subjects to subliminal stimuli; 1 group  exposed to unpleasant stimuli & 1 group exposed to pleasant stimuli;  those who were exposed to the pleasant rated the neutral stimuli lower  than those exposed to unpleasant stimuli
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B. SENSORY ADAPTATION  (HABITUATION) – Decreased sensitivity to an  unchanging stimulus -> Adaptive 1. VISION   - THE EXCEPTION: less adaptive – humans depend on vision greatly  Saccadic movements – small involuntary movements of eyes – prevents  habituation III.  VISION  – STIMULUS  =  electromagnetic energy = lightwaves; simulates  vision/eyes A. THE HUMAN EYE  –  Lightwaves first enter through the cornea Amount of light regulated by the iris and pupil Role of arousal?   Less light or arousal – dilation of pupil  Retina – where images are focused – contains photoreceptors 1. PROBLEMS WITH VISION  – “OPIAS” a. Myopia       (Nearsightedness) –  lens contracting so they are too  thick and/or the eyeball maybe too long; image projected in front  of the retina (perfect vision = image projection on the retina)
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b. Hyperopia      (Farsightedness) –  lens are manipulated so they are  too thin and/or the eyeball is too short; image projected behind  the retina  c.
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