Intro to Psych Unit 2=3 Review Sheet - Psychology Exam 3...

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Psychology Exam 3 Cognitive Development, Social Development, Personality, Mental Disorders Cognitive Development Infants’ Perception of the World -basic sensory processes -vision: present at birth, not very strong -1 month: blurry -2 months: color -3 months: full color (development of cones) -6 months: full vision -hearing: present at birth, acuity rapidly increases -by 6 months infants can localize sound -taste: present at birth, can discriminate between 4 tastes -salty, sweet, sour, bitter -infants prefer to sweet -touch: present at birth, important with reflexes - rooting reflex : stroke a baby’s cheek and they’ll turn to suck -infants do react and feel pain -methodology preferential viewing -used because we can’t ask infants about behaviors -premise: infants prefer new stimuli to familiar stimuli -infants “pay attention” to novel stimuli - habituation : when stimulus becomes familiar, they pay less attention -will look at new object over old object -“rudimentary memory” for familiar things -babies internally represent what they’ve seen -complex perceptual processes -object perception -edges mark boundaries of objects -Ghim et al (1990) study: 3 month old infants -can they distinguish edges/visual illusions? -phase 1: showed a square to infant until habituation -phase 2: present 4 patterns; one has an illusion of a square -babies look at the square the least -they perceive the edges and recognize the square -size constancy -Granrud (1986) study: 4-5 month olds -can they tell things don’t change size when placed at different distances?
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-“novel” bear study -phase 1: showed novel bear to infants until habituation -phase 2: presented same bear @ different viewing differences AND a new, novel bear -if there is size constancy, they look at novel bear -they realize the old bear is the same one, just farther away -depth perception -visual cliff experiment (Gibson and Wallc, 1960) -Plexiglas over table, half way there is a “drop” -locomotive babies were put on cliff and parents motion for them to cross over the clear glass on the deep side -babies will look down, but won’t cross the “drop” -babies lowered over clear side freak out -increased heart rate -crying *non-locomotive babies do not freak out -once they can feel the glass and reason, visual cliff doesn’t work -facial perception -babies look @ human face the most when given different stimuli -why not the others new stimuli? -babies prefer faces: this is the special case -babies are in tune to faces and will follow them -eye movements in face perception -more complex as baby ages -due to increase in visual ability -at 3 months: concentration centered on eyes and mouth -why? they move! Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development -Piaget -Swiss, University of Geneva -biologist, not psychologist -very interested in development of knowledge -looked @ how different age children solve problems -not about right vs. wrong about HOW -his theory is based on experiment and observation -fundamental assumptions - schema : psychological structure for representing knowledge in our heads -child is a scientist naturally curious!
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