Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Bio102 Spring 2015 Exam II Study Guide...

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Bio102 Spring 2015 Exam II Study Guide Exam Date: Fri, Feb. 27 Make sure to also study the in-class assignments as well! Speciation Describe the morphological, lineage, and biological species concepts o Morphological- species based on appearance alone and can be delineated by morphological “gaps” in variation among species o Lineage- evolutionary species concept o Biological- species are “group of interbreeding natural population that are reproductively isolated” Describe why the biological species concept is difficult to apply o Difficult to apply because with morphological species there is convergent evolution so it becomes difficult to see what actually mates and what doesn’t There are three necessary steps for generating new species: interruption of gene flow; divergence of the new populations by selection and/or drift; and accumulation of sufficient changes so that upon reintroduction, gene flow may not be re-established. Be able to identify how each of these is fulfilled in examples of speciation that I give you. o Interruption of gene flow: o Divergence of the new populations by selection and/or drift o Accumulation of sufficient changes Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation. o Allopatric- complete geographic isolation- can lead to sister species o Sympatric- without geographic isolation Explain two mechanisms for generating sympatric speciation (e.g. Describe how sexual selection can lead to sympatric speciation) o Disruptive selection- o Polyploidy- having more than 2 full sets of chromosomes Understand the examples by which genomic compatibilities may evolve o Describe prezygotic and postzygotic ways of maintaining reproductive isolation o Prezygotic: Premating- habitat isolation- 2 species don’t encounter each other during reproductive stages due to different habitat preferences Postmating:
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