biolab report enzymes

biolab report enzymes - Enzyme Activity and Factors that...

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Enzyme Activity and Factors that Affect It Nicole Mitchell Section 422 Honor Pledge: I pledge that no unauthorized assistance has been given or received in the completion of this work. Experiments described were performed by me and/or my lab group and this write-up is entirely my own creative work.
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I. Introduction Enzymes are proteins found in cells, and are very important to our everyday lives. By acting as catalysts, enzymes speed up the rate of a reaction by binding to one of the reactants and in doing so, decreasing the activation energy. Enzymes are unchanged after a reaction and can therefore be reused again. The molecules that enzymes bond to and act upon are called substrates, and are usually what an enzyme is named for (Desaix and Stegenga 2007). This process can be seen in the oxidation reaction that occurs in plants when they are injured or exposed to damage from the external environment. The catechol that is found inside a plant is oxidized by the outside air, resulting in the formation of benzoquinone and water. This reaction requires the enzyme chatecolase to provide enough benzoquinone to repair the damaged part of the plant, and can be represented as: catecholase ½ O 2 + Catechol 1,2-Benzoquinone + H 2 O Evidence of this process can be seen when an apple that has been bitten into is left out for a long period of time, and begins to appear brown on the inside (Desaix and Stegenga 2007). As the apple is left out longer, the catechol reaction produces more benzoquinone to keep pathogens and bacteria from entering the exposed tissue. Many environmental factors exist that can affect this enzyme reaction. Temperature is one of these factors. It affects a reaction by increasing the kinetic energy of molecules, which causes them to move faster and the overall rate of the reaction to increase. Evidence of this can be seen when dissolving salt in water. The process occurs much faster when warm water is used, because the water molecules move faster to break apart the salt, since they have more kinetic
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energy due to their increased temperature. Therefore, I believe that the greatest levels of benzoquinone will be found in the cuvette placed in the 60º C water bath, because the enzyme will be moving around faster than at other temperatures and will be more likely to interact with the catechol in the cuvette. The activity of enzymes can also be found in the process of digestion, where they break down food before it moves on through the body. A cofactor is often needed to help an enzyme bond to its substrate. Cofactors alter the active site to allow the enzyme to fit into it more easily. To figure out which cofactors are needed in a reaction, chelating agents are used. They work by binding to particular ions, thus blocking these ions from helping alter the active sites (Desaix and Stegenga 2007) . EDTA, a chelating agent used in food preservation, blocks magnesium and calcium ions that cause bacterial and fungal growth (Valdivia and Abriouel 1998). Therefore,
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course BIOL 101L taught by Professor Stengaga during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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biolab report enzymes - Enzyme Activity and Factors that...

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