Steward Test 1 Notes

Steward Test 1 Notes - Monday, January 8 BC=Before Christ...

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Monday, January 8 BC=Before Christ AD=Anno Domini BCE=Before Current Era CE=Current Era Neolithic=New Stone Age Human history is cyclical. Humans are confronted with problems, and seek solutions to their problems. Then new problems present themselves. This is how human civilization changes. Complexity is the hallmark of civilization. As solutions to problems are discovered, civilizations become more complex. All civilizations have long roots. Much of the past lingers in the present, and leaves an impression on our lives. Human beings first lived in small kinship groups and extended family networks. Finding a steady food supply was a besetting problem. Kinship groups gathered plants and pursued animal herds. Competition for food increased as population grew. We have society when the lives of a group of people become more complex. The oldest Neolithic settlement known was Catal Huyuk in south central Turkey. It had about 10,000 people at its height, around 7,000 BC. Ancient Jericho, in the Jordan Valley, was also very old, dating from around 6,500 BC. These were not full-blown civilizations, however. A civilization must have sedentary agriculture, codified law, division of labor, and many other things. 1
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Wednesday, January 10 Agricultural Revolution Scarce food, and how to find enough food to sustain population, is a great problem. Settled societies developed agriculture as a way to get food. Agriculture is the basis of all settled societies. The agricultural revolution was quite gradual. Early humans were hunter-gatherers. As population grew, so did competition for dwindling resources. The agricultural revolution began around 7,000 BC out of harsh necessity, hunger. It didn’t occur all over at the same time, but began in pockets, before 5,000 BC in Mesopotamia. It fans out from there across the globe. There were other pockets too, with differing plants and degrees of specialization. The agricultural revolution happened very slowly, over centuries, with occasional disruptions and accelerations, but it began around 7,000 BC. As it developed, it fanned outward. Different pockets came in contact with each other. Upon these contacts were built economies, trade, and technology. The agricultural revolution set human society in motion. By 2000 BC, it had spread to all Eurasia. Humans began to settle down and focus on agriculture. Knowledge of plants solves problem of hunger. As agriculture expands, though, soil gets exhausted. In consequence of the agricultural revolution, population grows, because a steady food supply allows people to live longer, healthier lives. There is lower infant mortality. The danger of hunting was removed. You need less land to survive. Hunter-gatherer societies must spread out, which means there is little growth. The farming lifestyle doesn’t require this. Population increases because people live closer together. This creates the problem of needing more land for more food. As the food supply becomes reliable, a surplus develops, allowing storage of food for
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2008 for the course HIST 1010 taught by Professor Kicklighter during the Spring '07 term at Auburn University.

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Steward Test 1 Notes - Monday, January 8 BC=Before Christ...

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