Intro to Psych Unit 2 Review Sheet - Psychology Test 2...

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Psychology Test 2 Learning, Memory, Intelligence, and Social Psychology Learning Basic Processes of Learning -learning depends critically on memory -emotions are “learned” -Ex: we are NOT innately afraid of snakes -Ex: humans find “big eyes/small nose” combination cute because of a maternal instinct -proceduralization : tasks originally require high effort, but through repetition, can lead to low effort responses -requires conscious effort practice virtually unconscious effort -Ex: tying your shoe, riding a bike, etc -only through practice do “objects” gain “significance” -neutral object experience appraisal/value/attitude -explicit reactions vs. implicit reactions -how we respond/act is representative of implicit emotions -important with prejudice -learning : any process through which experience at one time can alter and individual’s behavior at a future time - inborn reflexes : things we do at birth without having to go through experience -“present at birth” or innate -3 aspects -simple -involuntary -lower brain is involved -Ex: blinking in response to air blown into the eye, discomfort to being dropped, patella response, gagging response -all inborn reflexes can be modified -Ex: height is genetic, but diet is not: both affect height -some reflexes are not inborn develop through classical conditioning -are gender differences innate? -some are… -aggression in males is often higher -verbal ability in women is higher -3 perspectives on learning -behavioral -cognitive -ecological
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Behavior Perspective -1 st chronologically -founded by John Watson -his boast: he could take any infant @ random and train him to be any type of specialist regardless of talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, etc. -liberals tend to believe this Head Start Program -reflexes : relatively automatic stimulus-response sequences mediated by the nervous system -innate reflexes classical conditioning learning of new reflexes Classical Conditioning (CC) -Ian Pavlov (1849-1936) -originally studied digestion in dogs -created device to collect saliva from dogs to later analyze - salivation response : dogs salivated when the tongue touches food -Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate to metronome instead of the food -did so by associating the metronome with the arrival of food -called the conditioned reflex -Before Conditioning -unconditioned stimulus causes the unconditioned response (UCS UCR) -food dog salivates -neutral stimulus does not cause the unconditioned response -bell (or metronome) does not cause the dog to salivate -During Conditioning -neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus causes the unconditioned response -bell is rung, food is then presented dog salivates *conditioning works best if NS is presented before the UCS -After Conditioning -conditioned stimulus causes the conditioned response (CS CR) -bell is rung dog salivates *there has to be an original reflex for classical conditioning to work -difference between CC and Aristotle’s “Association of Continuity” -before conditioning…
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